Libya at a glance        0  424 reads

Geography

Location; North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan. Area; 1,759,540 million sq. km. Cities; Tripoli (capital), Benghazi. Terrain; Mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions. Climate; Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior. Land use; Arable land--1.03%; permanent crops--0.19%; other--98.78%.


People

Nationality; Noun and adjective--Libyan(s). Population (July 2010 est.); 6,461,454. Annual population growth rate (2010 est.); 2.117%. Birth rate (2010 est.)--24.58 births/1,000 population. Death rate (2010 est.)--3.45 deaths/1,000 population. Ethnic groups; Berber and Arab 97%; other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians). Religion; Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%. Languages; Arabic is the primary language. English and Italian are understood in major cities. Education; Years compulsory--9. Attendance--90%. Literacy (age 15 and over who can read and write)--total population 82.6%; male 92.4%; female 72% (2003 est.). Health (2010 est.); Infant mortality rate--20.87 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy--total population 77.47 yrs.; male 75.18 yrs.; female 79.88 yrs. Work force (2010 est.); 1.686 million.


Government

Official name; Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Type; "Jamahiriya" is a term Col. Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi coined and which he defines as a "state of the masses" governed by the populace through local councils. In practice, Libya is an authoritarian state. Independence; Libya declared independence on December 24, 1951. Revolution Day; September 1, 1969. Constitution; No formal document. Revolutionary edicts establishing a government structure were issued on December 11, 1969 and amended March 2, 1977 to establish popular congresses and people's committees that constitute the Jamahiriya system. Administrative divisions; 32 municipalities (singular--"shabiya", plural--"shabiyat"); Butnan, Darnah, Gubba, al-Jebal al-Akhdar, Marj, al-Jebal al-Hezam, Benghazi, Ajdabiya, Wahat, Kufra, Surt, Al Jufrah, Misurata, Murgub, Bani-Walid, Tarhuna and Msallata, Tripoli, Jfara, Zawiya, Sabratha and Surman, An Nuqat al-Khams, Gharyan, Mezda, Nalut, Ghadames, Yefren, Wadi Alhaya, Ghat, Sabha, Wadi Shati, Murzuq, Tajura and an-Nuwaha al-Arba'a. Political system; Political parties are banned. According to the political theory of Col. Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi, multi-layered popular assemblies (people's congresses) with executive institutions (people's committees) are guided by political cadres (revolutionary committees). Suffrage; 18 years of age; universal and compulsory.


Economy

Real GDP (2009 est.); $85.04 billion. GDP per capita (PPP, 2009 est.); $13,400. Real GDP growth rate (2009 est.); -0.7%. Natural resources; Petroleum, natural gas, gypsum. Agriculture; Products--wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle; approximately 75% of Libya's food is imported. Industry; Types--petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement. Trade; Exports (2009 est.)--$34.24 billion; crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals. Major markets (2009 est.)--Italy (37.65%), Germany (10.11%), Spain (7.94%), France (8.44%), Switzerland (5.93%), U.S. (5.27%). Imports (2009 est.)--$22.11 billion; machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods, consumer products, semi-finished goods. Major suppliers (2009)--Italy (18.9%), China (10.54%), Turkey (9.92%), Germany (9.78%), Tunisia (5.25%), South Korea (4.02%).

Background
 


The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics - but was forced to retreat in 1987. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. During the 1990s, QADHAFI began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya accepted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and to renounce terrorism. QADHAFI has made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations since then. He has received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe in 15 years when he traveled to Brussels in April 2004. Libya has responded in good faith to legal cases brought against it in US courts for terrorist acts that predate its renunciation of violence. Claims for compensation in the Lockerbie bombing, LaBelle disco bombing, and UTA 772 bombing cases are ongoing. The US rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June 2006. In late 2007, Libya was elected by the General Assembly to a nonpermanent seat on the United Nations Security Council for the 2008-09 term.

 

SOURCES All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008

ALTERNATIVE NAMES
Libya, Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma, libyan arab jamahiriya, the libyan arab jamahiriya

Identification
 

15 character
Libya

30 character
Libya

Country name

Libya

Country name > Conventional long form
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Country name > Conventional short form

Libya

Country name > Local long form
Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma

Country name > Local short form

none

ISO code

434

ISO long

LBY

ISO short
LY

Native names
Al-Lībīyah, ???????

Oceanographic code

53

Translation > Catalan

Libia

Translation > French

Libye

Translation > German

Libyen

Translation > Italian

Libia

Translation > Portugese

Libia

Translation > Spanish

Libia

UN code

434

 

SOURCES CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Microsoft.com; Wkipedia; IOC country codes

ALTERNATIVE NAMES
Libya, Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma, libyan arab jamahiriya, the libyan arab jamahiriya

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