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1) Government
 

Administrative divisions
18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Ambassadors from Finland > Current Finnish Ambassadors > Ambassador Matti Kääriäinen
Capital city Mogadishu
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 2 04 N, 45 22 E
Capital city > Name Mogadishu

Capital city > Time difference
UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution
25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979; note: the formation of transitional governing institutions, known as the Transitional Federal Government, is currently ongoing

Corruption 2.1 [149th of 160]
countries' copyright length > Usual term of copyright protection unknown

Diplomatic representation from the US
the US does not have an embassy in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya at United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; mailing address: Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000; FAX [254] (20) 363-6157

Diplomatic representation in the US
Somalia does not have an embassy in the US (ceased operations on 8 May 1991); note - the TFG is represented in the United States through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations

Elections > Head of state Transition

Executive branch > Cabinet
Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by the Transitional Federal Assembly

Executive branch > Chief of state
Transitional Federal President Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed (since 14 October 2004); note - a transitional governing entity with a five-year mandate, known as the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), was established in October 2004; the TFIs relocated to Somalia in June 2004

Executive branch > Election results
Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed, the former leader of the semi-autonomous Puntland region of Somalia, was elected president by the Transitional Federal Assembly

Executive branch > Head of government
Prime Minister Nur "Adde" HASSAN Hussein (since 24 November 2007)

Flag description
light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; blue field influenced by the flag of the UN

Flag modification 12 [122nd of 197]
Foreign relations > Nepal > Date of Establishment October 24, 1984
General government final consumption expenditure > annual % growth 15.2 % [11th of 147]
General government final consumption expenditure > constant LCU 21702600000
General government final consumption expenditure > current LCU 10580000000
General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ 133,825,800 $ [112nd of 169]
General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ (per $ GDP) 0.17 $ per $1 of GDP [93rd of 184]
General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ (per capita) 20.533 $ per capita [174th of 184]

Government type
no permanent national government; transitional, parliamentary federal government

Independence
1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Judicial branch
following the breakdown of the central government, most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or Sharia (Islamic) law with a provision for appeal of all sentences

Legal system
no national system; a mixture of English common law, Italian law, Islamic Sharia, and Somali customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Legislative branch
unicameral National Assembly; note: unicameral Transitional Federal Assembly (TFA) (275 seats; 244 members appointed by the four major clans (61 for each clan), 31 seats allocated to smaller clans and subclans)

Legislative branch > A note
fledgling parliament; a transitional 245-member National Assembly began to meet on 13 August 2000 in the town of Arta, Djibouti and is now based in Mogadishu

National holiday
Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland

political parties > No party
Political parties and leaders none

Political pressure groups and leaders
numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the transitional government

Political pressure groups and leaders > Other
numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the transitional government

Prime minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament > % 7.8 % [139th of 174]
Secession attempts Somaliland
Status transition/anarchy
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Transnational Issues > Disputes > International
Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia and have established commercial ties with other regional states; "Puntland" and "Somaliland" "governments" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists

UN membership date 20 Sep. 1960


 

SOURCES
All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: List of Ambassadors from Finland ; CIA World Factbook, 14 June, 2007 ; Transparency International; Wikipedia: List of countries' copyright length ; Wikipedia: Elections by country ; Flagspot; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Nepal ; World Development Indicators database; CIA World Factbook, December 2003; Wikipedia: List of political parties ; Wikipedia: Prime minister ; "State Practice And International Law In Relation to unilateral Secession" by James Crawford, Whewell Professor of International Law, University of Cambridge, 19 February 1997. Available online via the Department of Justice, Canada; electionworld.org; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; Wisconsin High School Model United Nations

ALTERNATIVE NAMES

Somalia

Democracy
 

Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Management Index 2006 1.55 [118th of 118]
Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Status Index 2006 1.36 [119th of 119]
Bertelsmann Transformation Index>Political Transformation 1.58 [119th of 119]
Civil and political liberties 0.5 [124th of 140]
Electoral system
parallel: first-past-the-post
Electoral system type semi-proportional
Homosexuality laws of the world > Homosexuality laws > Laws against homosexuality Yes*
Parliamentary elections > Invalid votes 11.1% [8th of 110]
Parliamentary elections > Total vote 879,554 [106th of 154]
Parliamentary elections > Turnout 87.1 [17th of 117]
Parliamentary elections > Voting age population 1,010,100 [119th of 163]
Parliamentary elections > Voting age population (per capita) 117.563 per 1,000 people [162nd of 162]


 

SOURCES
Bertelsmann Transformation Index online, 2006; http://www.bertelsmann-transformation ... /BTI_2006_Ranking_GB.pdf; Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; No comment is being made on the state of democracy. Categorizations are based on the electoral law, or the last competitive election held; Wikipedia: Homosexuality laws of the world ; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003

ALTERNATIVE NAMES

Somalia

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