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1) Government
 

Administrative divisions
26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah (El Beheira), Al Fayyum (El Faiyum), Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah (El Monofia), Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf (Beni Suef), Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh (Western Desert), Qina (Qena), Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj (Sohag)
Ambassadors from Finland > Current Finnish Ambassadors > Ambassador Hannu Halinen
Ambassadors from Israel > Current Israeli Ambassadors > Embassy > Website Cairo
Ambassadors from Israel > Current Israeli Ambassadors > Israeli Ambassador Shlomo Cohen
Capital city Cairo
Capital city > Daylight saving time
+1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends last Thursday in September
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 30 03 N, 31 15 E
Capital city > Name Cairo
Capital city > Time difference
UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Constitution
11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980, 25 May 2005, and 26 March 2007
Copyright > Reference Art. 160,
Corruption 3.4 [76th of 160]
countries' copyright length > Usual term of copyright protection 50 pma
Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission
Ambassador Margaret SCOBEY
Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy
8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo
Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX [20] (2) 2797-3200
Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address
Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone [20] (2) 2797-3300
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery
3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission
Ambassador (designate) Sameh SHOUKRY
Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general
Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX [1] (202) 244-4319
Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone [1] (202) 895-5400
Elections > Head of state Direct election
embassies and high commissions in Ottawa > Address 454 Laurier Avenue East
embassies and high commissions in Ottawa > Neighbourhood Sandy Hill
Executive branch > Cabinet
Cabinet appointed by the president
Executive branch > Chief of state
President Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
Executive branch > Election results
Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%
Executive branch > Elections
president elected by popular vote for six-year term (no term limits); note - a national referendum in May 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the People's Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 September 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 September 2005; next election scheduled for 2011
Executive branch > Head of government
Prime Minister Ahmed Mohamed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004)
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation flag and similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
Flag modification 4 [169th of 197]
Foreign relations > Croatia > Date of Establishment October 1, 1992
Foreign relations > Nepal > Date of Establishment July 16, 1957
General government final consumption expenditure > annual % growth 2.8 % [60th of 147]
General government final consumption expenditure > constant 2000 US$ 13,107,850,000 constant 2000 US$ [34th of 145]
General government final consumption expenditure > constant 2000 US$ (per capita) 177.054 constant 2000 US$ per c [69th of 146]
General government final consumption expenditure > constant LCU 23554170000
General government final consumption expenditure > current LCU 68600000000
General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ 11,425,140,000 $ [43rd of 169]
General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ (per $ GDP) 0.128 $ per $1 of GDP [92nd of 184]
General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ (per capita) 154.325 $ per capita [92nd of 184]
Government type republic
Heads of Missions from the United Kingdom
Sir Derek Plumbly
Heads of Missions from the United Kingdom > Resident Heads of Missions > Type Embassy
Independence
28 February 1922 (from UK)
International organization participation
ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, COMESA, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Judicial branch
Supreme Constitutional Court
Key ministers > Defence Mohammed Hussein Tantawi
Key ministers > Finance Youssef Boutros-Ghali
Key ministers > Foreign affairs Ahmed Abul Gheit
Key ministers > Interior Habib al-Adli
Key ministers > Transport Essam Sharaf
Legal system
based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch
bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura that traditionally functions only in a consultative role but 2007 constitutional amendments could grant the Council new powers (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members)
Legislative branch > Election results
People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 311, NWP 6, Tagammu 2, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 112 (12 seats to be determined by rerun elections, 10 seats appointed by President); Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 84, Tagammu 1, independents 3
Legislative branch > Elections
People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 7 and 20 November, 1 December 2005;(next to be held November-December 2010); Advisory Council - last held June 2007 (next to be held May-June 2010)
Management time dealing with officials > % of management time 2.05 % [7th of 38]
National holiday Revolution Day, 23 July
Parliamentary seats > Female 2% [131st of 143]
Partners in Population and Development > Representatives > Name H.E Dr. Hatem M. Gabaly
Policy uncertainty > % of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint 63.79 % [1st of 38]
political parties > Dominant party
Political parties and leaders
National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Moussa Mustafa MOUSSA]; note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties with representation in elected bodies are listed
Political parties and leaders > A note
formation of political parties must be approved by the government
Political parties and leaders > Note
formation of political parties must be approved by the government
Political pressure groups and leaders
Muslim Brotherhood (technically illegal); note: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition
Prime minister Ahmed Nazif
Procedures to build a warehouse > number 30 [7th of 168]
Procedures to build a warehouse > number (per capita) 0.405 per 1 million people [143rd of 170]
Procedures to enforce a contract > number 55 [12th of 170]
Procedures to enforce a contract > number (per capita) 0.743 per 1 million people [141st of 171]
Procedures to register property > number 7 [48th of 167]
Procedures to register property > number (per capita) 94.553 per 1 billion people [151st of 167]
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament > % 2 % [167th of 174]
Start-up procedures to register a business > number 10 [68th of 171]
Start-up procedures to register a business > number (per capita) 0.135 per 1 million people [148th of 171]
Status pseudo-democracy
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Time required to build a warehouse > days 263 days [41st of 168]
Time required to enforce a contract > days 1,010 days [15th of 171]
Time required to register property > days 193 days [20th of 167]
Time required to start a business > days 19 days [136th of 171]
Time to prepare and pay taxes > hours 536 hours [26th of 169]
Time to resolve insolvency > years 4.2 years [30th of 151]
Transnational Issues > Disputes > International
while Sudan retains claim to the Hala'ib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, both states withdrew their military presence in the 1990s and Egypt has invested in and effectively administers the area; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border
UN membership date 24 Oct. 1945
United Nations mission
http://www.embassyofegyptwashingtondc.org/
Washington, D.C. embassies > Neighborhood Cleveland Park


 

SOURCES
All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: List of Ambassadors from Finland ; Wikipedia: Ambassadors from Israel ; CIA World Factbook, 14 June, 2007 ; Wikipedia: List of countries' copyright length ; Transparency International; Wikipedia: Elections by country ; Wikipedia: List of embassies and high commissions in Ottawa ; Flagspot; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Croatia ; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Nepal ; World Development Indicators database; Wikipedia: Heads of Missions from the United Kingdom ; Economist Intelligence Unit; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; Wikipedia: Partners in Population and Development ; Wikipedia: List of political parties ; CIA World Factbook, December 2003; Wikipedia: Prime minister ; electionworld.org; Wisconsin High School Model United Nations; Wikipedia: List of Washington, D.C. embassies

ALTERNATIVE NAMES

Egypt, Arab Republic of Egypt, Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah, Misr

Democracy
 

Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Management Index 2006 3.88 [85th of 118]
Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Status Index 2006 4.29 [90th of 119]
Bertelsmann Transformation Index>Political Transformation 4.12 [80th of 119]
Civil and political liberties 1.5 [112nd of 140]
Compulsory voting > Penalty
"Explanation, Fine, Possible imprisonment " (This is the year from which we have found the earliest law.)
Electoral system two-round system
Electoral system type majority
Female candidacy 1,956 [54th of 161]
Female parliamentarians 2.4% [146th of 157]
Female suffrage 1956
First female parliamentarian 1957 (elected)
Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment 0.936744433044643 [112nd of 183]
Homosexuality laws of the world > Homosexuality laws > Laws against homosexuality No*
Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout 0% [152nd of 152]
Parliamentary elections > Voter registration 24,602,200 [23rd of 152]
Parliamentary elections > Voting age population 33,115,600 [21st of 163]
Parliamentary elections > Voting age population (per capita) 427.265 per 1,000 people [127th of 162]
Vote counting technology manual


 

SOURCES
Bertelsmann Transformation Index online, 2006; http://www.bertelsmann-transformation ... /BTI_2006_Ranking_GB.pdf; Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003; No comment is being made on the state of democracy. Categorizations are based on the electoral law, or the last competitive election held; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva; calculated on the basis of data on parliamentary seats from IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2002. Parline Database. March 2002; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database | United Nations Statistics Division; Wikipedia: Homosexuality laws of the world ; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance

ALTERNATIVE NAMES

Egypt, Arab Republic of Egypt, Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah, Misr

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