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Armed forces growth 1 [68th of 132]
Armed forces personnel 448,000 [10th of 166]
Armed forces personnel (per capita) 5.7802 per 1,000 people [40th of 166]
Arms exports > constant 1990 US$ 25,000,000 constant 1990 US$ [22nd of 45]
Arms exports > constant 1990 US$ (per capita) 364.514 constant 1990 US$ per 1 [46th of 83]
Arms imports > constant 1990 US$ 596,000,000 constant 1990 US$ [9th of 100]
Arms imports > constant 1990 US$ (per capita) 8.05 constant 1990 US$ per c [28th of 170]
Branches
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty > Signatures and Ratifications > Signature 14 OCT 1996
Conscription
Conscription exists.
Conventional arms imports $398,000,000.00 [11th of 85]
Conventional arms imports (per $ GDP) 1.258 per $1,000 [17th of 85]
Conventional arms imports (per capita) 5.135 per 1 population [37th of 85]
Employment in arms production 45,000 [15th of 56]
Employment in arms production (per capita) 580.6 per 1 million people [39th of 56]
expenditure > % of central government expenditure 12.54 % [21st of 88]
expenditure > % of GDP 2.81 % [21st of 145]
expenditure > current LCU 15100000000
Expenditures 3.4 % of GDP [18th of 87]
Expenditures > Dollar figure $2,440,000,000.00 [27th of 111]
Expenditures > Dollar figure (per $ GDP) $29.42 per 1,000 $ of GDP [23rd of 111]
Expenditures > Dollar figure (per capita) $34.24 per capita [50th of 111]
Expenditures > Percent of GDP 3.4% [35th of 154]
Gulf War Coalition Forces 33,600 [4th of 30]
Gulf War Coalition Forces (per capita) 0.434 per capita [10th of 30]
Iraqi insurgency > Foreign fighter nationality distribution > Sorted alphabeticallyality 78 [1st of 25]
Manpower > Availability > Females 20,406,408 [13th of 162]
Manpower > Availability > Males 21,247,777 [14th of 210]
Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 19,895,400 [16th of 175]
Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 20,340,716 [16th of 175]
Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 (per capita) 0.28 per capita [34th of 175]
Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 (per capita) 256.695 per 1,000 people [69th of 174]
Manpower > Fit for military service > Females 17,405,837 [12th of 162]
Manpower > Fit for military service > Males 18,153,158 [14th of 210]
Manpower > Fit for military service > Males age 15-49 13,148,944 [14th of 174]
Manpower > Fit for military service > Males age 15-49 12,867,200 [14th of 174]
Manpower > Fit for military service > Males age 15-49 (per capita) 0.181 per capita [78th of 174]
Manpower > Fit for military service > Males age 15-49 (per capita) 166.015 per 1,000 people [89th of 173]
Manpower > Military age 20 years of age
Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females 786,590 [13th of 226]
Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females (per capita) 9.626 per 1,000 people [106th of 225]
Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males 825,300 [13th of 226]
Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males (per capita) 10.1 per 1,000 people [103rd of 225]
Manpower available for military service > Females age 18-49 17,683,904 [11th of 120]
Manpower available for military service > Females age 18-49 (per capita) 0.22 per capita [60th of 120]
Manpower available for military service > Males age 18-49 18,347,560 [12th of 164]
Manpower available for military service > Males age 18-49 (per capita) 0.228 per capita [72nd of 164]
Manpower fit for military service > Females age 18-49 14,939,378 [10th of 119]
Manpower fit for military service > Females age 18-49 (per capita) 0.186 per capita [43rd of 119]
Manpower fit for military service > Males age 18-49 15,540,234 [10th of 161]
Manpower fit for military service > Males age 18-49 (per capita) 0.193 per capita [32nd of 161]
Manpower reaching military service age annually > Females age 18-49 764,176 [11th of 91]
Manpower reaching military service age annually > Males age 18-49 802,920 [14th of 157]
personnel 799,000 [7th of 170]
personnel (per capita) 10.793 per 1,000 people [25th of 171]
personnel > % of total labor force 3.49 % [15th of 168]
Service age and obligation
18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation
Tanks 900 tanks [17th of 22]
Tanks (per capita) 11.612 tanks per 1 million peop [18th of 22]
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier > National examples > Description
Also includes the tomb of President Anwar Sadat.
US military exports $615,240.00 thousand [5th of 109]
US military exports (per capita) $7.94 thousand per 1,000 peopl [10th of 109]
Weapon holdings 11,251,000 [6th of 137]
Weapon holdings (per capita) 145,163 per 1 million people [43rd of 137]

WMD > Biological
There is very limited open-source information indicating that Egypt is pursuing a biological weapons (BW) program. The country acceded to the Geneva Protocol on December 6, 1928 and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) on April 10, 1972. Most assessments by security experts indicate that while Egypt has a strong technical base in applied microbiology, it lacks the necessary infrastructure for developing or producing BW. Furthermore, there is no corroborated open-source evidence of any organized BW-related research activity. There have, however, been some allegations by Israel that Egypt is conducting research to develop anthrax and plague bacteria, botulinum toxin, and Rift Valley fever virus for military purposes. The Egyptian government strongly denies these accusations.

WMD > Chemical
Egypt is one of the few countries known to have employed chemical weapons against its enemies in the 20th century. Despite this history of use and contemporary concerns regarding the possession and proliferation of chemical weapons there is relatively little open-source information concerning Egypt's chemical warfare (CW) programs. There is strong evidence that during their intervention in the Yemen Civil War (1963-1967) Egyptian forces employed bombs and artillery shells filled with phosgene and mustard against the Royalist troops and civilians in North Yemen. Egypt appears to have inherited stocks of phosgene and mustard agents left behind by British forces when their occupation of Egypt ended in 1954. Egypt definitely received defensive CW assistance from the Soviet Union in the 1960s and early 1970s and might have received support for an offensive CW program. Since the 1980s Egypt has received training in defensive CW from the United States. Egypt maintains a substantial defensive CW capability and produces personal protective equipment and decontamination equipment for domestic use and export. It is strongly suspected, though not firmly established, that since the early 1960s Egypt has expanded its CW capability to include domestic production of nerve agents and psychoactive chemicals. By the early 1970s Egypt was believed to possess stocks of mustard, tabun and sarin. Reports in the 1990s claimed that Egypt had begun the production of VX nerve agent. Egypt possesses a sufficiently advanced chemical and industrial infrastructure to allow it to pursue the production of chemical weapons and their associated delivery systems if it chose to do so. Suspected Egyptian CW facilities include the Abu-Za'abal Company for Chemicals and Insecticides and the Abu Za'abal Company for Specialty Chemicals; there may be others. Egypt has been involved in at least two instances of chemical weapons related proliferation. The first case was the direct provision of weaponized agents in bombs and artillery shells to Syria prior to the 1973 Yom Kippur war. In the 1980s Egypt was a conduit for the supply of precursor chemicals to Iraq’s CW program. These chemicals were often obtained from European suppliers and then exported to Iraq. It is possible that Egyptian personnel provided assistance to Iraqi forces in the development of tactics and doctrines for the use of CW. Egypt maintains commercial links with Syria and may supply Syria with many of its chemical needs thus directly or indirectly supporting that country’s own chemical weapons program. Despite the widely held belief that it maintains an offensive CW program Egypt is still able to import the materials and equipment that it requires for the functioning of its chemical industries. Egypt is not subject to military or economic sanctions but is subject to some restrictions associated with the enforcement of the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Egypt acceded to the Geneva Protocol on December 6, 1928, but remains outside the CWC. The Egyptian government publicly denies developing, acquiring, or producing CW but has indicated that it will not accede to the CWC until questions regarding Israel’s nuclear weapons are addressed.

WMD > Missile
Egypt's missile program began in earnest in the 1960s. With West German assistance, Egypt began developing three missile systems: al-Zafar (375-km range), al-Kahir (600-km range) and al-Raid (1,000-km range); however, with the withdrawal of West German assistance in 1966, these programs were abandoned. In the 1980s, Egypt aligned with Iraq and Argentina in an effort to develop a short-range, solid-fueled missile known in Argentina as Condor-II and in Iraq as Badr-2000 (the internal Egyptian designation is not known publicly). In 1989, Cairo ended the cooperative relationship with Baghdad, but it is likely that domestic-based efforts continue on this missile. Egypt has been more successful in its pursuit of Scud-B and perhaps Scud-C manufacturing capabilities. With the assistance of North Korea, Egypt was able to develop an indigenous Scud-B production capability, and there are reports that it has developed an enhanced Scud-C missile. In 2001, Egypt reportedly signed an agreement with North Korea to purchase its 1000km-range Nodong missile system. Egypt is not a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR).

WMD > Nuclear
Egypt's efforts to develop nuclear technology likely began in the late 1950s. The program is housed at the Inshas Nuclear Research Center, 40 km outside of Cairo. Inshas hosts a Soviet-supplied 2 MW research reactor that went critical in 1961, and an Argentine-supplied 22 MW light water research reactor that went critical in 1997. Cairo has long expressed the desire to import power-generation reactors, but thus far these efforts have proven unsuccessful. In the 1970s, there was apparently a debate within Egypt about pursuing a weapons capability and, as part of that effort, developing an independent fuel cycle. However, it appears that no serious work was done towards these ends. In 1981, Egypt acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and, one year later, began implementing the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) comprehensive safeguards. Egypt has been a vocal critic of the NPT—beginning notably at the 1995 Review and Extension Conference—and has supported a nuclear weapons free zone in the Middle East, citing Israel's non-ascension to the NPT as an obstacle to this process.

WMD > Overview
A recipient of substantial U.S. military aid, Egypt does not appear to be aggressively pursuing nonconventional weapons capabilities at this time. Nonetheless, it is one of the few countries that has used chemical weapons in warfare (Yemen Civil War, 1963-1967) and is suspected of maintaining a chemical warfare (CW) capability, as well as a moderately advanced missile program. Cairo has been a leader in promoting a Weapons of Mass Destruction Free Zone (WMDFZ) in the Middle East and the strongest critic of Israel's nuclear weapons program, linking its refusal to sign the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) to Israel's nonparticipation in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).


 

SOURCES
calculated on the basis of data on armed forces from IISS (International Institute for Strategic Studies). 2001. The Military Balance 2001-2002. Oxford: Oxford University Press; IISS (International Institute for Strategic Studies). 2001. The Military Balance 2001-2002. Oxford: Oxford University Press; World Development Indicators database; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty ; Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Geneva, Switzerland, 1997. Data collected from the nations concerned, unless otherwise indicated. Acronyms: Amnesty International (AI); European Council of Conscripts Organizations (ECCO); Friends World Committee for Consultation (FWCC); International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHFHR); National Interreligious Service Board for Conscientious Objectors (NISBCO); Service, Peace and Justice in Latin America (SERPAJ); War Resisters International (WRI); World Council of Churches (WCC); SIPRI (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute). 2005. SIPRI Arms Transfers. Database. February. Stockholm.; Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC); "Gulf War Veterans: Measuring Health" by Lyla M. Hernandez, Jane S. Durch, Dan G. Blazer II, and Isabel V. Hoverman, Editors; Committee on Measuring the Health of Gulf War Veterans, Institute of Medicine. Published by The National Academies Press 1999; Wikipedia: Iraqi insurgency ; CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005; CIA World Factbook, 14 June, 2007 ; Dr T.R. O'Connor, (05/15/04); Wikipedia: Tomb of the Unknown Soldier ; Study by David Lochhead and James Morrell; available from the Center for International Policy; The Nuclear Threat Initiative

ALTERNATIVE NAMES

Egypt, Arab Republic of Egypt, Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah, Misr

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