Geography        0  473 reads

1) Natural geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area
total: 1.873.959 million sq km
land: 1.636 million sq km
water: 12,000 sq km
Area""comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries
total: 5,440 km
border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km
Coastline: 2,440 km
note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: natural prolongation
exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Elevation extremes
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 27%

forests and woodland: 7%

other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 94,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes along western border and in the northeast

Environment""current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment""international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport


2) Human Geography


Nationality
noun: Iranian(s)
adjective: Iranian

Populatio

75,149,669 (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Age structure

0-14 years: 24.1% (male 9,608,342/female 9,128,427)
15-64 years: 70.9% (male 28,083,193/female 27,170,445)
65 years and over: 5% (male 1,844,967/female 2,055,846) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 27.4 years
male: 27.1 years
female: 27.6 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.247% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

Birth rate: 18.52 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Death rate: 5.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166

Net migration rate: -0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Urbanization
urban population: 71% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
TEHRAN (capital) 7.19 million; Mashhad 2.592 million; Esfahan 1.704 million; Karaj 1.531 million; Tabriz 1.459 million (2009)

Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 21 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 135

Infant mortality rate
total: 41.11 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 58
male: 41.61 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population: 70.35 years
country comparison to the world: 146
male: 68.84 years
female: 71.93 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.87 children born/woman (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146

Health expenditures: 3.9% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 166

Physicians density: 0.89 physicians/1,000 population (2005)

Hospital bed density: 1.38 beds/1,000 population (2006)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 92,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 6,400 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 14.2% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 41

Education expenditures: 4.7% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 72

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 77%
male: 83.5%
female: 70.4% (2002 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 23%
country comparison to the world: 38
male: 20.2%
female: 34% (2008)


3) Political geography

Administrative Division

On the first level of country subdivisions of Iran are the provinces. Each province is further subdivided into counties called Shahrestan , and each Shahrestan is subdivided into districts called Bakhsh, There are usually a few cities and rural agglomerations in each county. Rural agglomerations are a collection of a number of villages.

Iran is divided into thirty one provinces, each governed by an appointed governor. The provinces are divided into counties, and subdivided into districts and sub-districts. The provincial authority is headed by a Governor-General, who is appointed by the Minister of the Interior subject to approval of the cabinet.
 

 

Here below you'll find more detailed info on Iran's provinces.

  1. Tehran Province: The province gained importance when Tehran was claimed the capital by the Qajar dynasty in 1778. Today, Tehran, with a population of more than 7 million, is ranked amongst the 20 most populous metropolitan cities of the world. Tehran has over 1500 historical sites of cultural significance registered with the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. The oldest of these in Tehran province are the remains of two sites in Firuzkuh County that date back to the 4th millennium BCE. Tehran province is the richest province of Iran as it contributes approximately 29% of the country's GDP. Furthermore, it houses approximately 18% of the country's population. Tehran Province is the most industrialized province in Iran; 86.5% of its population resides in urban areas and 13.5% of its population resides in rural areas.
  2. Qom Province: with 11,237 km², covering 0.89% of the total area in Iran. It is in the north of the country, and its provincial capital is the city of Qom.The climate of Qom province varies between a desert and semi-desert climate, and comprises mountainous areas, foothills and plains.
    Today, Qom is considered one of the focal centers of the Shiite sect of Islam. Its theological center and the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma'soomeh are prominent features of the provincial capital of Qom. Outside the city is Jamkaran, another site of religious pilgrimages.
  3. Markazi Province: The word markazi means central in Persian.Markazi lies in western Iran. Its capital is Arak. Its population is estimated at 1.35 million. The present borders of the province date to the 1980s, when the province was split into the current Markazi and the Tehran Province, with portions being annexed by Esfahan, Semnan Province, and Zanjan.
  4. Qazvin Province: It is in the north-west of the country, and its center is the city of Qazvin. The province was created in 1993 out of part of Tehran Province and includes 20 cities. In the old days, Qazvin was nicknamed the 'city of water reservoirs'. Of the 100 or so water reservoirs of Qazvin, only 10 remain today, all protected by the Provincial Cultural Heritage Organization. Qazvin was the location of a former capital of the Persian Empire and contains over 2000 architectural and archeological sites. It is a provincial capital today that has been a cultural center of mass throughout history.
  5. Gilan Province: It lies along the Caspian Sea, just west of the province of Mazandaran, east of the province of Ardabil, north of the provinces of Zanjan and Qazvin. The northern part of the province is part of territory of South (Iranian) Talysh. At the center of the province is the main city of Rasht. Other towns in the province include Astara, Astaneh-e Ashrafiyyeh, Fuman, Lahijan, Langrud, Masouleh, Manjil, Rudbar, Roudsar, Shaft, Talesh, and Soumahe Sara. The main harbor port of the province is Bandar-e Anzali.
  6. Ardabil Province: It is in the north west of the country, bordering the Republic of Azerbaijan and the provinces of East Azarbaijan, Zanjan, and Gilan. Its centre is the city of Ardabil. The province was established in 1993 from the eastern part of East Azarbaijan and the northern part of Gilan.
  7. Zanjan Province: Located in the North West of Iran, its capital is Zanjan city. Agriculture is the principal occupation, and crops include rice, corn (maize), oilseeds, fruits, and potatoes. The province lies 330 km northwest of Tehran, connected to it via a freeway. Zanjan also has an incredible cave called katale khor. It is near the Sultaniyeh.
  8. East Azarbaijan Provicne: It is in the northwest of the country, bordering Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, and the provinces of Ardabil, West Azerbaijan, and Zanjan. Its capital is Tabriz.
  9. West Azarbaijan Province: It is located in the North West of the country, bordering Turkey, Iraq and Nakhchivan, and the provinces of East Azerbaijan, Zanjan and Kurdistan.The province of West Azerbaijan covers an area of 39,487 km², or 43,660 km² including Lake Urmia. In 2006 the province had a population of 3,015,361. The capital city of the province is Urmia.
  10. Kordestan Province: not to be confused with the greater geographical area of Iranian Kurdistan. The province of Kurdistan is 28,817 km² in area which encompasses just one-fourth of the Kurdish inhabited areas of Iran or Iranian Kurdistan. It is located in the west of Iran and bound by Iraq on the west, the province of west Azerbaijan to its north, Zanjan to the northeast and Kermanshah to the south. The capital of Kurdistan Province is the city of Sanandaj (Kurdish: Sinne).
  11. Hamedan Province: Its center is Hamedan city. The province of Hamedan covers an area of 19,546 km². In the year 1996, Hamedan province had a population of approximately 1.7 million people. Other major cities of Hamedan province are: Toyserkan, Nahavand, Malayer, Asad Abad, Bahar, Razan, Kabudrahang.
  12. Kermanshah Province: The province was known from 1969 to 1986 as Kermanshahan and from 1986 to 1995 as Bakhtaran. The province's capital is located in the middle of the western part of Iran. The population of the city is 822,921. The city is built on the slopes of Mt.Sefid Kooh and extended toward south during last two decades.Various attractions exist that date from the pre-Islamic era, such as the Kohneh Bridge, to contemporary parks and museums.
  13. Ilam Province: It is in the south-west of the country, bordering Iraq. Its provincial center is the city of Ilam. Covering an area of 19,086 square kilometers, the cities of the province are Ilām, Mehran, Dehloran, Dareh Shahr, Sarable, Eywan, Abdanan and Arkwaz. The population of the province is approximately 540,000 people (2005 estimate).
  14. Lorestan Province: is a historic territory and province of western Iran, amidst the Zagros Mountains. The name Lorestan means "land of the Lurs", and in the wider sense consists of that part of western Iran coinciding with the province of Ilam and extending for about 650 km on a northwest to southeast axis from Kermanshah to Fars, with a breadth of 150-180 km. The population of Lorestan was estimated at 1,716,527 people in 2006.
  15. Khuzestan Province: It is in the southwest of the country, bordering Iraq's Basra Province and the Persian Gulf. Its capital is Ahwaz and covers an area of 63,238 km². Khouzi is referred to as people who make raw sugar from sugar cane fields of northern Sassanian planes up to Dez River side in Dezful. Currently, Khuzestan has 18 representatives in Iran's parliament, the Majlis, and 6 representatives in the Assembly of Experts.
  16. Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province: It lies in the southwestern part of the country. Its capital is Shahrekord. It has an area of 16,332 square kilometers and a population of 842,000 (2005 estimate). The history of the province is tied to that of the Bakhtiari tribe.
  17. Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province: It is in the south-west of the country, and its capital is Yasuj. The province covers an area of 15,563 square kilometers, and in 2006 had a population of 634,000. The people mainly speak in Lurish language. The province is mostly mountainous in terrain, part of the Zagros range. The highest point is the Dena summit with a height of 4,409 meters.
  18. Bushehr Province: It is in the south of the country, with a long coastline onto the Persian Gulf. Its center is Bandar-e-Bushehr, the provincial capital. The province has nine counties: Bushehr, Dashtestan, Dashti, Dayyer, Deylam, Jam, Kangan, Ganaveh and Tangestan. In 2005, the province had a population of approximately 816,115 people.
  19. Fars Province: known as Cultural Capital of Iran. It is in the south of the country and its center is Shiraz. It has an area of 122,400 km². In 2006, this province had a population of 4.34 million people, of which 61.2% were registered as urban dwellers, 38.1% villagers, and 0.7% nomad tribes. Fars or Pars is the original homeland of the Persian people. The native name of the Persian language is Farsi or Parsi. Persia and Persian both derive from the Hellenized form Persis of the root word Pars. The Old Persian word was Parsa.
  20. Hormozgan Province: It is in the south of the country, facing Oman. Its area is 70,697 km2 (27,296 sq mi), and its provincial capital is Bandar Abbas. The province has 14 islands located in the Persian Gulf, and 1,000 km (620 mi) of coastline. The province has eleven major cities, namely: Bandar Abbas, Bandar Lengeh, HajiAbbad, Minab, Qeshm, Jask, Bastak, Bandar Khamir, Parsian, Rudan, and Abumusa. The province also has 21 counties (or districts), 69 municipalities, and 2046 villages. In 2007, the population of the province was at almost 1.5 million.
  21. Sistan and Baluchestan Province: It is in the southeast of the country, bordering Pakistan and Afghanistan and its capital is Zahedan. The population comprises Sunni Muslim Baluchis and Shi'a Persian Sistanis. The province is the largest in Iran, with an area of 181,785 km² and a population of 2.4 million. The province comprises two sections, Sistan in the north and Baluchestan in the south.
  22. Kerman Province: Kerman is capital of the province.
  23. Yazd Province: It is in the centre of the country, and its administrative center is the city of Yazd. The population of Yazd is predominantly Persian, most of whom are Shi'a Muslims. There are also small Zoroastrian communities. The city of Yazd’s first mention in historic records predate it back to around 3000 years B.C. The province has an area of 131,575 km.Yazd was visited by Marco Polo in 1272 A.D, who described it as a good and noble city and remarked its silk production industry. Isolated from any approach by a huge tract of monotonous desert, the vibrancy of Yazd often comes as a surprise.
  24. Isfahan Province: also transliterated as Esfahan, Espahan, Sepahan or Isphahan, is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is located in the center of the country. Its capital is the city of Isfahan. The province of Esfahan covers an area of approximately 107,027 square km and is situated in the center of Iran. Historians have recorded initially as a defense and military base. Isfahan is unique city. It is an important historical center for main different group of tourists in the domestic and international in the world. The complexity of tourism Isfahan makes this city an excellent destination for urban tourism research .in this paper, the consumption of tourist attractions by tourists was analyzed toward to begin of 2000 period of prosperity in tourism in this city in Middle East region. The data were analyzed using a statistical which enabled us to differentiate between tourist attractions based on the characteristic of tourist who visit it.
  25. Semnan Province: It is in the north of the country, and its center is Semnan.The province is divided into two parts: a mountainous region, and the plains at the foot of the mountains. The province of Semnan covers an area of 96,816 square kilometers and stretches along the Alborz mountain range and borders to Dasht-e Kavir desert in its southern parts.
  26. Mazandaran Province: is a Caspian province in the north of Iran. Located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by the Golestan, Semnan, Tehran, Alborz, Qazvin, and Gilan provinces. Mazandaran is a major producer of farmed fish, and aquaculture provides an important economic addition to traditional dominance of agriculture. Another important contributor to the economy is the tourism industry, as people from all of Iran enjoy visiting the area. Mazandaran is also a fast-growing centre for biotechnology and civil engineering.
  27. Golestan Province: located in the north-east of the country, south of the Caspian Sea. Its capital is Gorgan. Golestān was split off from the province of Mazandaran in 1997. It has a population of 1.6 million (2006) and an area of 20,380 km². The major townships of the province are: Gorgan, Gonbad Kavoos, Bandar Torkaman, Bandar Gaz, Aliabad-e katul, Kord Kooy, Fenderesk and Minoo Dasht. Present-day Gorgan was called Esteraba or Astarabad until 1937.
  28. North Khorasan Province: Bojnurd is the centre and capital of the province.
  29. Razavi Khorasan Province: is a province located in northeastern Iran. Mashhad is the centre and capital of the province.This province envelopes many historical and natural attractions, such as mineral water springs, small lakes, recreational areas, caves and protected regions, and various hiking areas. Besides these, Khorasan encompasses numerous religious buildings and places of pilgrimage, including the shrine of Imam Reza, Goharshad mosque and many other mausoleums and Imamzadehs which attract visitors to this province.The Cultural Heritage of Iran lists 1179 sites of historical and cultural significance in all three provinces of Khorasan.
    Razavi Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan in 2004.
  30. South Khorasan Province: is a province located in eastern Iran. Birjand is the centre of the province. The other major cities are Ferdows and Qaen. South Khorasan is one the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan in 2004.
    South Khorasan has many historical and natural attractions, but besides these, South Khorasan encompasses various religious buildings and places of pilgrimage as well.
  31. Alborz Province: is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, centered in Karaj. Alborz Province was formed by division of Tehran Province into two provinces, after the Parliamentary approval on June 23, 2010, and was introduced as 31st province of Iran. Alborz Province is the smallest province of Iran.

 

Province

Capital

Area

Density
(population/km²)

Alborz

Karaj

5,833 km2 (2,252 sq mi)

0 inhabitants per square kilometre (0 /sq mi)

Ardabil

Ardabil

17,800 km2 (6,900 sq mi)

70.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (183 /sq mi)

Azarbaijan, East

Tabriz

45,650 km2 (17,630 sq mi)

76.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (199 /sq mi)

Azarbaijan, West

Urmia

37,437 km2 (14,455 sq mi)

78.8 inhabitants per square kilometre (204 /sq mi)

Bushehr

Bushehr

22,743 km2 (8,781 sq mi)

35.9 inhabitants per square kilometre (93 /sq mi)

Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari

Shahrekord

16,332 km2 (6,306 sq mi)

51.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (134 /sq mi)

Fars

Shiraz

122,608 km2 (47,339 sq mi)

35.8 inhabitants per square kilometre (93 /sq mi)

Gilan

Rasht

14,042 km2 (5,422 sq mi)

171.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (445 /sq mi)

Golestan

Gorgan

20,195 km2 (7,797 sq mi)

81.1 inhabitants per square kilometre (210 /sq mi)

Hamadan

Hamadan

19,368 km2 (7,478 sq mi)

91 inhabitants per square kilometre (240 /sq mi)

Hormozgān

Bandar Abbas

70,669 km2 (27,285 sq mi)

18.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (48 /sq mi)

Ilam

Ilam

20,133 km2 (7,773 sq mi)

27.1 inhabitants per square kilometre (70 /sq mi)

Isfahan

Isfahan

107,029 km2 (41,324 sq mi)

41.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (108 /sq mi)

Kerman

Kerman

180,836 km2 (69,821 sq mi)

13.5 inhabitants per square kilometre (35 /sq mi)

Kermanshah

Kermanshah

24,998 km2 (9,652 sq mi)

77.5 inhabitants per square kilometre (201 /sq mi)

Khorasan, North

Bojnourd

28,434 km2 (10,978 sq mi)

27.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (72 /sq mi)

Khorasan, Razavi

Mashhad

144,681 km2 (55,862 sq mi)

36.0 inhabitants per square kilometre (93 /sq mi)

Khorasan, South

Birjand

69,555 km2 (26,855 sq mi)

7.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (19 /sq mi)

Khuzestan

Ahvaz

64,055 km2 (24,732 sq mi)

67.8 inhabitants per square kilometre (176 /sq mi)

Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad

Yasuj

15,504 km2 (5,986 sq mi)

44.8 inhabitants per square kilometre (116 /sq mi)

Kurdistan

Sanandaj

29,137 km2 (11,250 sq mi)

54.0 inhabitants per square kilometre (140 /sq mi)

Lorestan

Khorramabad

28,294 km2 (10,924 sq mi)

62.2 inhabitants per square kilometre (161 /sq mi)

Markazi

Arak

29,130 km2 (11,250 sq mi)

46.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (121 /sq mi)

Mazandaran

Sari

23,701 km2 (9,151 sq mi)

118.9 inhabitants per square kilometre (308 /sq mi)

Qazvin

Qazvin

15,549 km2 (6,004 sq mi)

75.0 inhabitants per square kilometre (194 /sq mi)

Qom

Qom

11,526 km2 (4,450 sq mi)

92.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (239 /sq mi)

Semnan

Semnan

97,491 km2 (37,641 sq mi)

6.0 inhabitants per square kilometre (16 /sq mi)

Sistan and Baluchistan

Zahedan

181,785 km2 (70,188 sq mi)

12.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (33 /sq mi)

Tehran

Tehran

18,814 km2 (7,264 sq mi)

645.8 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,673 /sq mi)

Yazd

Yazd

129,285 km2 (49,917 sq mi)

7.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (19 /sq mi)

Zanjan

Zanjan

21,773 km2 (8,407 sq mi)

44.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (116 /sq mi)

 

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