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Administrative divisions
9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)

Ambassadors from Finland > Current Finnish Ambassadors > Ambassador Kirsti Aarnio  
Ambassadors from Israel > Current Israeli Ambassadors > Israeli Ambassador Yaakov Amitai  
Ambassadors from the United States > Other senior diplomatic representatives > Ambassador Vicki Huddleston  
Ambassadors from the United States > Other senior diplomatic representatives > Title Chargé d’Affaires  
Capital city Addis Ababa  
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 9 02 N, 38 42 E  
Capital city > Name Addis Ababa  

Capital city > Time difference
UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution
ratified 8 December 1994, effective 22 August 1995
Corruption 2.2 [142nd of 160]
countries' copyright length > Usual term of copyright protection unknown  
CPIA equity of public resource use rating 4.5 [3rd of 75]
CPIA quality of public administration rating 3 [26th of 75]
Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission
Ambassador Donald Y. YAMAMOTO
Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy
Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX [251] 11-517-40-01  
Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address
P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone [251] 11-517-40-00  
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery
3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission Ambassador Samuel ASSEFA  
Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) New York  
Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general Los Angeles  
Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX [1] (202) 587-0195  
Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone [1] (202) 364-1200  
Elections > Head of state Election by parliament  
embassies and high commissions in Ottawa > Address 151 Slater St, Suite 210  
embassies and high commissions in Ottawa > Neighbourhood
Downtown

Executive branch > Cabinet
Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives

Executive branch > Chief of state
President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001)

Executive branch > Election results
GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 79%

Executive branch > Elections
president elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 9 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections

Executive branch > Head of government
Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since August 1995)
Federal republic > Contemporary > Style
Federal Democratic Republic

Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

Flag modification 6 [155th of 197]
Foreign relations > Croatia > Date of Establishment October 17, 1995  
Foreign relations > Nepal > Date of Establishment April 15, 1971  
Foreign relations of Western Sahara > States recognizing the SADR > Date of recognition February 24, 1979  
General government final consumption expenditure > annual % growth 8.57 % [18th of 147]
General government final consumption expenditure > constant 2000 US$ 1,373,219,000 constant 2000 US$ [71st of 145]
    General government final consumption expenditure > constant 2000 US$ (per capita) 19.272 constant 2000 US$ per c [108th of 146]
General government final consumption expenditure > constant LCU 11189190000  
General government final consumption expenditure > current LCU 13766120000  
General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ 1,591,151,000 $ [85th of 169]
    General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ (per $ GDP) 0.142 $ per $1 of GDP [78th of 184]
    General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ (per capita) 22.33 $ per capita [137th of 184]
Government type federal republic  
Heads of Missions from the United Kingdom Robert Dewar  
Heads of Missions from the United Kingdom > Resident Heads of Missions > Type Embassy  

Independence
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Judicial branch
Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)

Legal origin
English

Legal system
based on civil law; currently transitional mix of national and regional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation (or upper chamber responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues) (108 seats; members are chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives (or lower chamber responsible for passing legislation) (547 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)

Legislative branch > A note
irregularities and violence at a number of polling stations necessitated the rescheduling of voting in certain constituencies; voting postponed in Somali regional state because of severe drought

Legislative branch > Election results
percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 327, CUD 109, UEDF 52, SPDP 23, OFDM 11, BGPDUF 8, ANDP 8, independent 1, others 6, undeclared 2

Legislative branch > Elections
last held 15 May 2005 (next to be held in 2010)

Legislative branch > Note
some seats still remain vacant as detained opposition MPs did not take their seats

Management time dealing with officials > % of management time 2.05 % [5th of 38]
National holiday
National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May
Parliamentary seats > Female 2% [127th of 143]
Policy uncertainty > % of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint 38.21 % [5th of 38]
political parties > Dominant party  
Political parties and leaders
Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP [AYELE Chamisso] (awarded to AYELE by the National Electoral Board on 11 January 2008, but AYELE has virtually no support among former CUD MPs, other CUD MPs must now be affiliated with their original CUD-precursor parties); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM, Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO, the South Ethiopian People's Democratic Front or SEPDF, and Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front or TPLF); Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement or GNDM; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM [BULCHA Demeksa]; Omoro People's Congress or OPC [IMERERA Gudina]; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP; United Ethiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]

Political pressure groups and leaders
Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF; Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]

Prime minister Meles Zenawi  
Procedures to build a warehouse > number 12 [144th of 168]
    Procedures to build a warehouse > number (per capita) 0.168 per 1 million people [156th of 170]
Procedures to enforce a contract > number 30 [101st of 170]
    Procedures to enforce a contract > number (per capita) 0.421 per 1 million people [153rd of 171]
Procedures to register property > number 13 [5th of 167]
    Procedures to register property > number (per capita) 182.441 per 1 billion people [131st of 167]
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament > % 21.9 % [44th of 174]
Start-up procedures to register a business > number 7 [132nd of 171]
    Start-up procedures to register a business > number (per capita) 0.098 per 1 million people [157th of 171]
Status pseudo-democracy  

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Time required to build a warehouse > days 133 days [131st of 168]
Time required to enforce a contract > days 690 days [36th of 171]
Time required to register property > days 43 days [97th of 167]
Time required to start a business > days 16 days [142nd of 171]
Time to prepare and pay taxes > hours 212 hours [99th of 169]
Time to resolve insolvency > years 2.4 years [98th of 151]
Trademarks, nonresidents 103 [95th of 99]
    Trademarks, nonresidents (per capita) 1.822 per 1 million people [122nd of 146]
Trademarks, residents 239 [74th of 98]
    Trademarks, residents (per capita) 4.228 per 1 million people [115th of 142]

Transnational Issues > Disputes > International
Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), which has monitored the 25-km-wide Temporary Security Zone in Eritrea since 2000, is extended for six months in 2007 despite Eritrean restrictions on its operations and reduced force of 17,000; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia

UN membership date 13 Nov. 1945  
United Nations mission
http://www.un.int/ethiopia/eth_page/fs_mst.htm
Washington, D.C. embassies > Neighborhood Cleveland Park  


SOURCES
All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: List of Ambassadors from Finland ; Wikipedia: Ambassadors from Israel ; Wikipedia: Ambassadors from the United States ; CIA World Factbook, 14 June, 2007 ; Transparency International; Wikipedia: List of countries' copyright length ; World Development Indicators database; Wikipedia: Elections by country ; Wikipedia: List of embassies and high commissions in Ottawa ; Wikipedia: Federal republic ; Flagspot; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Croatia ; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Nepal ; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Western Sahara ; Wikipedia: Heads of Missions from the United Kingdom ; CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005; CIA World Factbook, December 2003; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; Wikipedia: List of political parties ; Wikipedia: Prime minister ; electionworld.org; Wisconsin High School Model United Nations; Wikipedia: List of Washington, D.C. embassies

ALTERNATIVE NAMES
Ethiopia, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik, Ityop'iya

Democracy
 

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Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Management Index 2006 4.12 [83rd of 118]
Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Status Index 2006 4.19 [92nd of 119]
Bertelsmann Transformation Index>Political Transformation 4.17 [79th of 119]
Civil and political liberties 2 [94th of 140]
CPIA gender equality rating 3 [54th of 75]
CPIA policies for social inclusion/equity cluster average 3.6 [24th of 75]
CPIA property rights and rule-based governance rating 2.5 [50th of 75]
CPIA public sector management and institutions cluster average 3.1 [43rd of 75]
CPIA transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector rating 2.5 [52nd of 75]
Electoral system first-past-the-post  
Electoral system type plurality  
Female candidacy 1,955 [57th of 161]
Female parliamentarians 7.8% [119th of 157]
Female suffrage 1955  
First female parliamentarian 1957 (elected)  
Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment 0.8832102600401 [8th of 183]
Homosexuality laws of the world > Homosexuality laws > Laws against homosexuality Yes  
Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout 90% [17th of 152]
Parliamentary elections > Total vote 18,226,800 [21st of 154]
Parliamentary elections > Turnout 60 [67th of 117]
Parliamentary elections > Voter registration 20,252,000 [27th of 152]
Parliamentary elections > Voting age population 30,386,400 [23rd of 163]
    Parliamentary elections > Voting age population (per capita) 415.951 per 1,000 people [131st of 162]


SOURCES
Bertelsmann Transformation Index online, 2006; http://www.bertelsmann-transformation ... /BTI_2006_Ranking_GB.pdf; Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; World Development Indicators database; No comment is being made on the state of democracy. Categorizations are based on the electoral law, or the last competitive election held; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva; calculated on the basis of data on parliamentary seats from IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2002. Parline Database. March 2002; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database | United Nations Statistics Division; Wikipedia: Homosexuality laws of the world ; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003

ALTERNATIVE NAMES
Ethiopia, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik, Ityop'iya

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