Economy        0  373 reads

Sudan is an extremely poor country that has had to deal with social conflict, civil war, and the July 2011 secession of South Sudan - the region of the country that had been responsible for about three-fourths of the former Sudan's total oil production. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan''s GDP growth since it began exporting oil in 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of increases in oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Following South Sudan''s secession, Sudan has struggled to maintain economic stability, because oil earnings now provide a far lower share of the country''s need for hard currency and for budget revenues. Sudan is attempting to generate new sources of revenues, such as from gold mining, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. Services and utilities have played an increasingly important role in the economy. Agricultural production continues to employ 80% of the work force and contributes a third of GDP. Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan''s secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction and shortages of foreign exchange continue. Sudan also faces rising inflation, which has led to a number of small scale protests in Khartoum in recent months. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years to come.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$90.19 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
76
$93.86 billion (2010 est.)
$89.84 billion (2009 est.)
note
 data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)
$64.75 billion (2011 est.)

GDP - real growth rate
-3.9% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
211
4.5% (2010 est.)
3% (2009 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)
$2,800 (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
175
$2,300 (2010 est.)
$2,300 (2009 est.)
note
data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture
25%
industry
29.3%
services
45.7% (2011 est.)

Labor force
11.92 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world
44

Labor force - by occupation
agriculture
80%
industry
7%
services
13% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate

18.7% (2002 est.)
country comparison to the world
161

Population below poverty line

46.5% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%
2.7%
highest 10%
26.7%

Investment (gross fixed)
24.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
 46

Budget
revenues
$8.991 billion
expenditures
$11.89 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues
13.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
 201

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-4.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
150

Public debt
93.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
15
93.4% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)
18% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
213
13% (2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money
$9.925 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
 77
$8.027 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money
$15.62 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
93
$14.53 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit
$12.73 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
90
$12.78 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$NA

Agriculture - products
cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep and other livestock

Industries
oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly

Industrial production growth rate
3.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world
88

Current account balance
$123.3 million (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
53
$156.9 million (2010 est.)

Exports
$8.798 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
98
$11.4 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar

Exports - partners
China 68.1%, Japan 14.3%, India 5.6% (2011)

Imports
$8.088 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
105
$8.839 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat

Imports - partners
China 20.2%, Saudi Arabia 9.1%, UAE 6.7%, Egypt 6.6%, India 6.3%, Germany 4.3% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$295 million (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
150
$842.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Debt - external

$38.58 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
63
$37.56 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates
Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
2.67 (2011 est.)
2.31 (2010 est.)
2.3 (2009)
2.1 (2008)
2.06 (2007)

Fiscal year
calendar year

Energy


6.509 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world
108

Electricity - consumption
4.611 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world
118

Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world
133

Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world
136

Electricity - installed generating capacity
2.338 million kW (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world
98

Electricity - from fossil fuels
30.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world
178

Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world
180

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
66.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world
26

Electricity - from other renewable sources
3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world
46

Crude oil - production

452,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
32

Crude oil - exports
370,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world
22

Crude oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world
123

Crude oil - proved reserves
5 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world
27

Refined petroleum products - production
85,890 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world
77

Refined petroleum products - consumption

95,450 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world
81

Refined petroleum products - exports
14,950 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world
82

Refined petroleum products - imports

24,820 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world
93

Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world
193

Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world
196

Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world
133

Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world
56

Natural gas - proved reserves

84.95 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world
59

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
13.79 million Mt (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world
92


Transportation


Airports

72 (2012)
country comparison to the world
74

Airports - with paved runways
total
15
over 3,047 m
3
2,438 to 3,047 m
9
1,524 to 2,437 m
2
under 914 m
1 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
total
57
2,438 to 3,047 m
1
1,524 to 2,437 m
17
914 to 1,523 m
27
under 914 m
12 (2012)

Heliports
6 (2012)

Pipelines
gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2010)

Railways
total
5,978 km
country comparison to the world
30
narrow gauge
4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2008)

Roadways
total
11,900 km
country comparison to the world
131
paved
4,320 km
unpaved
7,580 km (2000)

Waterways
4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2011)
country comparison to the world
25

Merchant marine
total
2
country comparison to the world
143
by type
cargo 2 (2010)

Ports and terminals
Port Sudan

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