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1) Government
 

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Administrative divisions
6 regions (zobatat, singular - zoba); Anseba, Debub (Southern), Debubawi K'eyih Bahri (Southern Red Sea), Gash Barka, Ma'akel (Central), Semenawi Keyih Bahri (Northern Red Sea)

Ambassadors from Finland > Current Finnish Ambassadors > Ambassador Matti Kääriäinen  
Ambassadors from Israel > Current Israeli Ambassadors > Embassy > Website Asmara  
Ambassadors from Israel > Current Israeli Ambassadors > Israeli Ambassador Menahem Kanafi  
Capital city Asmara (Asmera)  
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 15 20 N, 38 56 E  
Capital city > Name Asmara (Asmera)  
Capital city > Time difference
UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Constitution
a transitional constitution, decreed on 19 May 1993, was replaced by a new constitution adopted on 23 May 1997, but not yet implemented
Corruption 2.6 [109th of 160]
countries' copyright length > Usual term of copyright protection unknown  
CPIA equity of public resource use rating 3 [67th of 75]
CPIA quality of public administration rating 3 [37th of 75]
Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission
Ambassador Ronald MCMULLEN
Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy 179 Ala Street, Asmara  
Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX [291] (1) 127584  
Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address P. O. Box 211, Asmara  
Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone [291] (1) 120004  
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery
1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission
Ambassador GHIRMAI Ghebremariam
Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general Oakland (California)  
Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX [1] (202) 319-1304  
Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone [1] (202) 319-1991  
Elections > Head of state Self-appointment  
Executive branch > Cabinet
State Council is the collective executive authority; members appointed by the president

Executive branch > Chief of state
President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly

Executive branch > Election results
ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%, other 5%

Executive branch > Elections
president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); the most recent and only election held 8 June 1993 (next election date uncertain as the National Assembly did not hold a presidential election in December 2001 as anticipated)

Executive branch > Head of government
President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993)

Flag description
red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle

Flag modification 5 [161st of 197]
Foreign relations > Croatia > Date of Establishment June 4, 1999  
General government final consumption expenditure > annual % growth 14.7 % [3rd of 147]
General government final consumption expenditure > constant 2000 US$ 487,267,100 constant 2000 US$ [101st of 145]
    General government final consumption expenditure > constant 2000 US$ (per capita) 115.151 constant 2000 US$ per c [92nd of 146]
General government final consumption expenditure > constant LCU 3027300000  
General government final consumption expenditure > current LCU 6704965000  
General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ 432,578,400 $ [118th of 169]
    General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ (per $ GDP) 0.446 $ per $1 of GDP [1st of 184]
    General government final consumption expenditure > current US$ (per capita) 98.283 $ per capita [107th of 184]

Government type
transitional government; note: following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature; the constitution, ratified in May 1997, did not enter into effect, pending parliamentary and presidential elections; parliamentary elections were scheduled in December 2001, but were postponed indefinitely; currently the sole legal party is the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ)

Heads of Missions from the United Kingdom Nick Astbury  
Heads of Missions from the United Kingdom > Resident Heads of Missions > Type Embassy  
Independence
24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)
Independence Day > Date May 24  

International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, LAS (observer), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Judicial branch
High Court - regional, subregional, and village courts; also have military and special courts

Legal system
primary basis is the Ethiopian legal code of 1957, with revisions; new civil, commercial, and penal codes have not yet been promulgated; government also issues unilateral proclamations setting laws and policies; also relies on customary and post-independence-enacted laws and, for civil cases involving Muslims, Islamic law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Legislative branch
unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Legislative branch > Elections
in May 1997, following the adoption of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly, which had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until countrywide elections to a National Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of the Transitional National Assembly were elected, the constitution stipulates that once past the transition stage, all members of the National Assembly will be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly elections scheduled for December 2001 were postponed indefinitely

Management time dealing with officials > % of management time 3.77 % [3rd of 38]
National holiday Independence Day, 24 May  
Parliamentary seats > Female 15% [35th of 143]
Policy uncertainty > % of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint 29.11 % [6th of 38]

Political parties and leaders
People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afworki] (the only party recognized by the government); note - a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties in January 2001, but the full National Assembly has yet to debate or vote on it

Political pressure groups and leaders
Eritrean Democratic Party (EDP) [HAGOS, Mesfin]; Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ (includes Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement or EIJM also known as the Abu Sihel Movement); Eritrean Islamic Salvation or EIS (also known as the Arafa Movement); Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean National Alliance or ENA (a coalition including EIJ, EIS, ELF, and a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Eritrean Public Forum or EPF [ARADOM Iyob]

Procedures to build a warehouse > number 19 [58th of 168]
    Procedures to build a warehouse > number (per capita) 4.317 per 1 million people [61st of 170]
Procedures to enforce a contract > number 35 [75th of 170]
    Procedures to enforce a contract > number (per capita) 7.952 per 1 million people [59th of 171]
Procedures to register property > number 12 [6th of 167]
    Procedures to register property > number (per capita) 2,726.432 per 1 billion people [38th of 167]
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament > % 22 % [42nd of 174]
Start-up procedures to register a business > number 13 [17th of 171]
    Start-up procedures to register a business > number (per capita) 2.954 per 1 million people [50th of 171]
Status dictatorship  
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Time required to build a warehouse > days 187 days [77th of 168]
Time required to enforce a contract > days 305 days [136th of 171]
Time required to register property > days 101 days [42nd of 167]
Time required to start a business > days 76 days [22nd of 171]
Time to prepare and pay taxes > hours 216 hours [96th of 169]
Time to resolve insolvency > years 1.7 years [126th of 151]

Transnational Issues > Disputes > International
Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision but, neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), which has monitored the 25-km-wide Temporary Security Zone in Eritrea since 2000, is extended for six months in 2007 despite Eritrean restrictions on its operations and reduced force of 17,000; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups

UN membership date 28 May. 1993  
United Nations mission
http://www.un.int/eritrea/
http://www.shaebia.org/artman/publish/
Washington, D.C. embassies > Neighborhood Kalorama Triangle  


SOURCES
All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: List of Ambassadors from Finland ; Wikipedia: Ambassadors from Israel ; CIA World Factbook, 14 June, 2007 ; Transparency International; Wikipedia: List of countries' copyright length ; World Development Indicators database; Wikipedia: Elections by country ; Flagspot; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Croatia ; Wikipedia: Heads of Missions from the United Kingdom ; Wikipedia: Independence Day ; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; electionworld.org; Wisconsin High School Model United Nations; Wikipedia: List of Washington, D.C. embassies

ALTERNATIVE NAMES
Eritrea, State of Eritrea, Hagere Ertra, Ertra

Democracy
 

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Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Management Index 2006 2.18 [111st of 118]
Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Status Index 2006 2.94 [113rd of 119]
Bertelsmann Transformation Index>Political Transformation 3.32 [100th of 119]
CPIA gender equality rating 3.5 [25th of 75]
CPIA policies for social inclusion/equity cluster average 3.2 [43rd of 75]
CPIA property rights and rule-based governance rating 2.5 [48th of 75]
CPIA public sector management and institutions cluster average 2.8 [52nd of 75]
CPIA transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector rating 2.5 [46th of 75]
Electoral system party list  
Electoral system type proportional  
Female candidacy 1,955 [56th of 161]
Female parliamentarians 14.7% [54th of 157]
Female suffrage 1955  
First female parliamentarian 1994 (elected)  
Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment 0.805518496028678 [140th of 183]
Homosexuality laws of the world > Homosexuality laws > Laws against homosexuality Yes  


SOURCES
Bertelsmann Transformation Index online, 2006; http://www.bertelsmann-transformation ... /BTI_2006_Ranking_GB.pdf; World Development Indicators database; No comment is being made on the state of democracy. Categorizations are based on the electoral law, or the last competitive election held; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva; calculated on the basis of data on parliamentary seats from IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2002. Parline Database. March 2002; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database | United Nations Statistics Division; Wikipedia: Homosexuality laws of the world

ALTERNATIVE NAMES
Eritrea, State of Eritrea, Hagere Ertra, Ertra

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