Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km² (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4 percent of the total land area. With 1.1 billion people as of 2013, it accounts for about 15% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign states ("countries"), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition.
Africa's population is the youngest among all the continents; 50% of Africans are 19 years old or younger.
Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria is the largest by population. Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.
It also contains the Nile River system, the world's longest, and the massive Sahara Desert, the world's largest.
International organisations in Africa
1- African Union (AU)
The advent of the African Union (AU) can be described as an event of great magnitude in the institutional evolution of the continent. On 9.9.1999, the Heads of State and Government of the Organisation of African Unity issued a Declaration (the Sirte Declaration) calling for the establishment of an African Union, with a view, inter alia, to accelerating the process of integration in the continent to enable it play its rightful role in the global economy while addressing multifaceted social, economic and political problems compounded as they are by certain negative aspects of globalisation.
The main objectives of the OAU were, inter alia, to rid the continent of the remaining vestiges of colonization and apartheid; to promote unity and solidarity among African States; to coordinate and intensify cooperation for development; to safeguard the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Member States and to promote international cooperation within the framework of the United Nations.
Indeed, as a continental organization the OAU provided an effective forum that enabled all Member States to adopt coordinated positions on matters of common concern to the continent in international fora and defend the interests of Africa effectively.
Through the OAU Coordinating Committee for the Liberation of Africa, the Continent worked and spoke as one with undivided determination in forging an international consensus in support of the liberation struggle and the fight against apartheid.
Quest for Unity
African countries, in their quest for unity, economic and social development under the banner of the OAU, have taken various initiatives and made substantial progress in many areas which paved the way for the establishment of the AU. Noteworthy among these are:
Lagos Plan of Action (LPA) and the Final Act of Lagos (1980); incorporating programmes and strategies for self reliant development and cooperation among African countries.
The African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (Nairobi 1981) and the Grand Bay Declaration and Plan of Action on Human rights: two instruments adopted by the OAU to promote Human and People’s Rights in the Continent. The Human Rights Charter led to the establishment of the African Human Rights Commission located in Banjul, The Gambia.
Africa’s Priority Programme for Economic recovery (APPER) – 1985: an emergency programme designed to address the development crisis of the 1980s, in the wake of protracted drought and famine that had engulfed the continent and the crippling effect of Africa’s external indebtedness.
OAU Declaration on the Political and Socio-Economic Situation in Africa and the Fundamental Changes taking place in the World (1990): which underscored Africa’s resolve to seize the imitative, to determine its destiny and to address the challenges to peace, democracy and security.
The Charter on Popular Participation adopted in 1990: a testimony to the renewed determination of the OAU to endeavour to place the African citizen at the center of development and decision-making.
The Treaty establishing the African Economic Community (AEC) - 1991: commonly known as the Abuja Treaty, it seeks to create the AEC through six stages culminating in an African Common Market using the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) as building blocks. The Treaty has been in operation since 1994.
The Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution (1993): a practical expression of the determination of the African leadership to find solutions to conflicts, promote peace, security and stability in Africa.
Cairo Agenda for Action (1995): a programme for relaunching Africa’s political, economic and social development.
African Common Position on Africa’s External Debt Crisis (1997): a strategy for addressing the Continent’s External Debt Crisis.
The Algiers decision on Unconstitutional Changes of Government (1999) and the Lome Declaration on the framework for an OAU Response to Unconstitutional Changes (2000).
The 2000 Solemn Declaration on the Conference on Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation: establishes the fundamental principles for the promotion of Democracy and Good Governance in the Continent.
Responses to other challenges: Africa has initiated collective action through the OAU in the protection of environment, in fighting international terrorism, in combating the scourge of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, malaria and tuberculosis or dealing with humanitarian issues such as refugees and displaced persons, landmines, small and light weapons among others.
The Constitutive Act of the African Union: adopted in 2000 at the Lome Summit (Togo), entered into force in 2001.
The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) : adopted as a Programme of the AU at the Lusaka Summit (2001).
Advent of the AU
The OAU initiatives paved the way for the birth of AU. In July 1999, the Assembly decided to convene an extraordinary session to expedite the process of economic and political integration in the continent. Since then, four Summits have been held leading to the official launching of the African Union:
The Sirte Extraordinary Session (1999) decided to establish an African Union
The Lome Summit (2000) adopted the Constitutive Act of the Union.
The Lusaka Summit (2001) drew the road map for the implementation of the AU
The Durban Summit (2002) launched the AU and convened the 1st Assembly of the Heads of States of the African Union.
Vision of the African Union
The vision of the African Union is that of: “An integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in global arena.”
This vision of a new, forwardlooking, dynamic and integrated Africa will be fully realized through relentless struggle on several fronts and as a long-term endeavour. The African Union has shifted focus from supporting liberation movements in the erstwhile African territories under colonialism and apartheid, as envisaged by the OAU since 1963 and the Constitutive Act, to an organization spear-heading Africa’s development and integration.
The Objectives of the AU
To achieve greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and the peoples of Africa;
To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its Member States;
To accelerate the political and socio-economic integration of the continent;
To promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples;
To encourage international cooperation, taking due account of the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;
To promote peace, security, and stability on the continent;
To promote democratic principles and institutions, popular participation and good governance;
To promote and protect human and peoples' rights in accordance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other relevant human rights instruments;
To establish the necessary conditions which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and in international negotiations;
To promote sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural levels as well as the integration of African economies;
To promote co-operation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standards of African peoples;
To coordinate and harmonize the policies between the existing and future Regional Economic Communities for the gradual attainment of the objectives of the Union;
To advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, in particular in science and technology;
To work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable diseases and the promotion of good health on the continent.
The Organs of the AU:
Composed of Heads of State and Government or their duly accredited representatives. The Assembly of Heads of State and Government is the supreme organ of the Union.
The Executive Council
Composed of Ministers or Authorities designated by the Governments of Members States. The Executive Council is responsible to the Assembly.
Composed of the Chairperson, the Deputy Chairperson, eight Commissioners and Staff members; Each Commissioner shall be responsible for a portfolio.
The Permanent Representatives' Committee
Composed of Permanent Representatives of Member States accredited to the Union. The Permanent Representatives Committee is charged with the responsibility of preparing the work of the Executive Council.
Peace and Security Council (PSC)
By decision AHG/Dec 160 (xxxvii) of the Summit of Lusaka, July 2001, a decision was made for the creation within the African Union of the Peace and Security Council. The Protocol establishing the PSC is in the process of ratification.
A Pan-African Parliament, and organ to ensure the full participation of African peoples in governance, development and economic integration of the Continent. The protocol relating to the composition, powers, functions and organization of the Pan-African Parliament has been signed by Member States and is in the process of ratification.
The Economic, Social and Cultural Council, an advisory organ composed of different social and professional groups of the Member States of the Union. The statutes determining the functions, powers, composition and organization of the Economic, Social and Cultural Council have been prepared and will be submitted to Maputo Summit.
The Court of Justice
A Court of Justice of the Union shall be established. The statutes defining the composition and functions of the Court of Justice have been prepared and will be submitted to the Assembly in Maputo.
The Specialized Technical Committees
The following Specialized Technical Committees are meant to address sectoral issues and are at Ministerial Level:
The Committee on Rural Economy and Agricultural Matters;
The Committee on Monetary and Financial Affairs;
The Committee on Trade, Customs and Immigration Matters;
The Committee on Industry, Science and Technology, Energy, Natural Resources and Environment;
The Committee on Transport, Communications and Tourism;
The Committee on Health, Labour and Social Affairs; and
The Committee on Education, Culture and Human Resources.
The Financial Institutions
The African Central bank
The African Monetary Fund
The African Investment Bank
The AU Commission
The Commission is the key organ playing a central role in the day-to-day management of the African Union. Among others, it represents the Union and defends its interests; elaborates draft common positions of the Union; prepares strategic plans and studies for the consideration of the Executive Council; elaborates, promotes, coordinates and harmonizes the programmes and policies of the Union with those of the RECs; ensures the mainstreaming of gender in all programmes and activities of the Union.
Members of the Commission
Eight (8) Commissioners.
Member States under political sanction
|Country||Capital||Calling Code||Currency||Independence Day||Head of Government||Head of State|
|People`s Democratic Republic of Algeria||Algiers||+213||Algerian Dinar (DZD)||Jul.05.1962||Prime Minister Abdel Malek Sellal||President Abdelaziz Bouteflika|
|Republic of Angola||Luanda||+244||Kwanza (AOA)||Nov.11.1975||Prime Minister Paulo Kassoma||President José Eduardo dos Santos|
|Republic of Benin||Porto-Novo||+229||CFA franc(XOF)||Aug.01.1960||Prime Minister||President Yayi Boni|
|Republic of Botswana||Gaborone||+267||Pula (BWP)||Sep.30.1966||President Ian Khama|
|Burkina Faso||Ouagadougou||+226||West African CFA franc (XOF)||Aug.05.1960||Prime Minister Luc Adolphe Tiao||President Blaise Compaoré|
|Republic of Burundi||Bujumbura||+257||Burundi franc (FBu)(BIF)||Jul.01.1962||President Pierre Nkurunziza|
|Republic of Cabo Verde||Praia||+238||Cape verdean escudo (CVE)||Jul.05.1975||Prime Minister José Maria Neves||President Jorge Carlos Fonseca|
|Republic of Cameroon||Yaounde||+237||CFA franc (XAF)||Jan.01.1960||Prime Minister Philémon Yang||President Paul Biya|
|* Central African Republic||Bangui||+236||Central african CFA franc (XAF)||Prime Minister Mahamat Kamoun||H.E. Mrs Catherine Samba Panza|
|The Republic of Chad,||N'Djamena||+235||CFA franc (XAF)||Aug.11.1960||Prime Minister Kalzeube Pahimi Deubet||President Idriss Déby|
|Union of the Comoros||Moroni||+269||Comorian franc (KMF)||Jul.06.1975||President Dr Ikililou DHOININE|
|Republic of the Congo||Brazzaville||+242||Central African CFA franc||Aug.15.1960||Prime Minister Isidore Mvouba||President Denis Sassou-Nguesso|
|Republic of Cote d'Ivoire||Yamoussoukro||+225||CFA franc (XOF)||Aug.07.1960||Prime Minister Jeannot Ahoussou-Kouadio||President Alassane Dramane Ouattara|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Kinshasa||+243||Congolese franc (CDF)||Jun.30.1960||Prime Minister Augustin Katumba Mwanke||President Joseph Kabila|
|Republic of Djibouti||Djibouti||+253||Franc (DJF)||Jun.27.1977||Prime Minister Abdoukader Kamil Mohamed||President Ismail Omar Guelleh|
|* Arab Republic of Egypt||Cairo||+20||Egyptian pound (EGP)||Prime Minister Ibrahim Mahlab||President Abdel Fatah el-Sisi|
|Republic of Equatorial Guinea||Malabo||+240||CFA franc||Oct.12.1968||Prime Minister Vincente Ehate Tomi||President Obiang Nguema Mbasogo|
|State of Eritrea||Asmara||+291||Nakfa (ERN)||May.24.1993||President Isaias Afewerki|
|Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia||Addis Ababa||+251||Birr||Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn||President Mulatu Teshome|
|Gabonese Republic||Libreville||+241||CFA franc||Aug.17.1960||Prime Minister Daniel Ona Ondo||President Ali Ben Bongo|
|Republic of the Gambia||Banjul||+220||Dalasi (GMD)||Feb.18.1965||President Yahya Jammeh|
|Republic of Ghana||Accra||+233||Ghanaian cedi(GHC)||Mar.06.1957||President John Dramani Mahama|
|Republic of Guinea||Conakry||+224||Guinean franc (GNF)||Oct.02.1958||Prime Minister Mohamed Said Fofana||President Alpha Condé|
|* Republic of Guinea-Bissau||Bissau||+245||CFA franc (XOF)||Sep.24.1973||Prime Minister Rui Duarte de Barros||Ag. President.Manuel Serifo Nhamadjo|
|Republic of Kenya||Nairobi||+254||Kenyan shilling (KES)||Dec.12.1963||Deputy President William Ruto||President Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta|
|Kingdom of Lesotho||Maseru||+266||Loti (LSL)||Oct.04.1966||Prime Minister Thomas Motsoahae Thabane||King Letsie III|
|Republic of Liberia||Monrovia||+231||Liberian Dollar(LRD)||President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf|
|Libya||Tripoli||+218||Lybian Dinar(LYD)||Prime Minister a.i Abdoullah al-Thinni||President Mohammed El-Megaref|
|Country||Capital||Calling Code||Currency||Independence Day||Head of Government||Head of State|
|Republic of Madagascar||Antananarivo||+261||Malagasy ariay(MGA)||Jun.26.1960||Prime Minister Roger Kolo||H. E. Mr Hery Martial Rakotoarimanana Rajaonarimampianina|
|Republic of Malawi||Lilongwe||+265||Kwacha(D)(MWK)||Jul.06.1964||President Peter Muharika|
|Republic of Mali||Bamako||+223||CFA franc (XOF)||Sep.22.1960||Prime Minister Moussa Mara||President Ibrahim Boubakar Keita|
|Republic of Mauritania||Nouakchott||+222||Mauritanian Ouguiya (MRO)||Nov.28.1960||Prime Minister Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf||President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz|
|Republic of Mauritius||Port Louis||+230||Mauritian rupee (MUR)||Mar.12.1968||Prime Minister Navin Ramgoolam||President Kailash Purryag|
|Republic of Mozambique||Maputo||+258||Mozambican metical (Mtn) (MZN)||Jun.25.1975||Prime Minister Dr. Alberto Vaquina||President Armando Guebuza|
|Republic of Namibia||Windhoek||+264||Namibian dollar(NAD)||Mar.21.1990||Prime Minister Nahas Angula||President Hifikepunye Pohamba|
|Republic of Niger||Niamey||+227||CFA franc (XOF)||Aug.03.1960||Prime Minister Brigi Rafini||President Mohamadou Issoufou|
|Federal Republic of Nigeria||Abuja||+234||Nigerian naira and Kobo(NGN)||Oct.01.1960||President Goodluck Jonathan|
|Republic of Rwanda||Kigali||+250||Rwandan franc(RWF)||Jul.01.1962||Prime Minister Anastase Murekezi||President Paul Kagame|
|Republic Arab Saharawi Democratic||Aauin||saharawi pesetas||Feb.27.1976||Prime Minister Abdelkader Taleb Oumar||President Mohamed Abdelaziz|
|Democratic Republic of sao Tome and Principe||Sao Tome||+239||Dobra(STD)||Jul.12.1975||Prime Minister Gabriel Arcanjo Ferreira da Costa||President Manuel Pinto Da Costa|
|Republic of Senegal||Dakar||+221||CFA franc(XOF)||Jun.20.1960||Prime Minister Mohamed Ben Adallah Dionne||President Macky Sall|
|Republic of Seychelles||Victoria||+248||Seychellois rupee(SCR)||Jun.29.1976||President James Michel|
|Republic of Sierra Leone||Freetown||+232||Leone (SLL)||Apr.27.1961||President Ernest Bai Koroma|
|Somali Republic||Mogadishu||+252||Somali shilling (SOS)||Jul.01.1960||Prime Minister Abdi Farah Shirdon Saaid||President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud|
|Republic of South Africa||Pretoria(Executive), Bloemfontein (Judical),CapeTown(Legislative)||+27||South African rand (ZAR)||President Jacob Zuma|
|Republic of South Sudan||Juba||Jul.09.2011||President Salva Kir|
|Republic of The Sudan||Khartoum||+249||Sudanese pound (SDG,SDD)||Jan.01.1956||President Omar al-Bashir|
|Kingdom of Swaziland||Lobamba(royal and legislative) Mbabane (Administrative)||+268||Lilangeni(SZL)||Sep.06.1968||Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini||King Mswati III|
|United Republic of Tanzania||Dar es Salaam(traditional capital) Dodoma (Location of legislature)||+255||Tanzanian shilling (TZS)||Dec.09.1961||Prime Minister Mizengo Pinda||President Jakaya Kikwete|
|Togolese Republic||Lome`||+228||CFA franc (XOF)||Apr.27.1960||Prime Minister Artheme Seleagodji Abomey||President Faure Gnassingbé|
|Tunisian Republic||Tunis||+216||Tunisian dinar(TND)||Mar.20.1956||Prime Minister Mehdi Jomaa||President Moncef Marzouki|
|Republic of Uganda||Kampala||+256||Ugandan shilling (UGX)||Oct.09.1962||Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi||President Yoweri Museveni|
|Republic of Zambia||Lusaka||+260||Zambian Kwacha(ZMK)||Oct.24.1964||President Michael Sata|
|Republic of Zimbabwe||Harare||+263||Zimbabwe Dollars(ZW$)||Nov.18.1980||Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai||President Robert Mugabe|
2- Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS)
ECOWAS in Brief
The Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen countries, founded in 1975. Its mission is to promote economic integration in "all fields of economic activity, particularly industry, transport, telecommunications, energy, agriculture, natural resources, commerce, monetary and financial questions, social and cultural matters ....."
The Institutions of the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) are as follows:
bullet.gif (971 bytes)The Commission
bullet.gif (971 bytes)The Community Parliament
bullet.gif (971 bytes)The Community Court OF Justice
bullet.gif (971 bytes)ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development (EBID)
The ECOWAS Commission and the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development, more often called The Fund are its two main institutions designed to implement policies, pursue a number of programmes and carry out development projects in Member States. Such projects include intra-community road construction and telecommunications; and agricultural, energy and water resources development.
ECOWAS Commission at a glance
The Heads of State and Government broke with the past by their historic decision to transform the ECOWAS Secretariat into a Commission in 2006. The difference goes beyond a name change and an increase in the number of officers at the management level. After more than thirty years of existence, ECOWAS finds itself at a cross-road. At thirty - eight, ECOWAS has come of age, it is mature and the master of its destiny.
Changes have already been underway with the support of development partners. These initiatives were boosted by the Heads of State and Government when they endorsed institutional transformation covering all ECOWAS Institutions.
By implementing this transformation process which should reposition ECOWAS vis-a-vis the West African populations to whom pledges have been made, the leaders of our region have taken the destiny of their institution into their own hands. Indeed, by subscribing to the vision of the Founding fathers of ECOWAS, they have taken ownership of the objectives designed to improve the living conditions of the citizenry, ensure economic growth and create an environment conducive to development and integration.
By becoming a Commission with enhanced powers and Commissioners in charge of smaller and clearly defined sectors, the ECOWAS Commission will have more impact and become more visible in Member States.
Regarding the Community Parliament, the restructuring is designed to make it more efficient by providing it with relevant management support. Similarly, the Community Court of Justice is being re-organized to have its judges also concentrate on their core competences.
The expected changes will not be possible without the support of the staff of our institutions. The task is huge; hence, the need for everyone to get involved in its implementation.
The Heads of State and Government urged everyone of us to participate in the rebirth of our organization to ensure that development and integration soon become a reality.
Restruction the Commission
To better adapt to the international environment.
To play a more effective role in the integration and development process.
A President, a Vice-President and 7 Commissioners.
A smaller and more clearly defined sector for each Commissioner.
Support to Member States to build their capacities for programme implementation.
A predictable rotation system based on equity, transparency and functionality for the appointment to key positions.
Consequences of the restructuring process;
Consolidation of the Community spirit.
Enhancement of the powers of the Commission.
Strengthening of supra-nationality.
Adoption of a new legal regime (decisions directly applicable in Member States and by the Institutions).
New regime for community acts
The transformation of the Secretariat into a Commission is being accompanied by a fundamental measure: the adoption of a new legal regime for Community Acts.
Until now obligations of Member States were captured principally in Protocols and Conventions which are subject to lengthy Parliamentary ratification processes. These processes delayed the entry into force of the legal texts thereby paralyzing the integration process. Decisions of the Authority were however immediately applicable and binding on Member States, whilst those emanating from the Council of Ministers were only applicable and binding on the Community Institutions.
Under the new legal regime, the principle of supranational becomes more pre-eminent and there is now a de-emphasis on the adoption of Conventions and Protocols.
Community Acts will be Supplementary Acts, Regulations, Directives, Decisions, Recommendations and Opinion. Thus, the Authority passes Supplementary Acts to complete the Treaty. Supplementary Acts are binding on Member States and the institutions of the Community.
The Council of Ministers enacts Regulations and Directives and makes Decisions and Recommendations. Regulations have general application and all their provisions are enforceable and directly applicable in Member States. They are enforceable in the institutions of the Community. Decisions are enforceable in Member States and all designated therein. Directives and their objectives are binding on all Member States. The modalities for attaining such objectives are left to the discretion of States.
The Commission adopts Rules for the implementation of Acts enacted by the Council. These Rules have the same legal force as Acts enacted by the Council. The Commission makes recommendations and gives advice. Recommendations and advice are not enforceable.
Mauritania, withdrew in December 2000
3- African Development Bank Group (ADB)
Established to help development efforts on the continent, the African Development Bank (AfDB) Group comprises three distinct entities under one management: the African Development Bank (ADB) which is the flagship or parent institution, established on August 4, 1963 in Khartoum, Sudan, by the then 23 newly independent African countries; as well as two concessionary windows - the African Development Fund (ADF), established on November 29, 1972, by the African Development Bank and 13 non-African countries, and the Nigeria Trust Fund (NTF), set up in 1976 by the Federal Government of Nigeria.
The inaugural meeting of the Board of Governors of the Bank was held from November 4-7, 1964, in Lagos, Nigeria, and the headquarters was opened in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, in March 1965. Its operations commenced on July 1, 1966. Since early 2003, the Group operates from its Temporary Relocation Agency (TRA) in Tunis, Tunisia
Membership of the AfDB Group, as at the end of November 2013, includes 53 independent African countries and 25 non-African countries. To become an AfDB member, non-regional countries must first be ADF members.
From an initial authorized capital of US$ 250 million, AfDB resources increased over a 19-year period up to 1982 to US$ 2.9 billion and jumped to US$ 6.3 billion in 1983 as a result of the admission of non-regional countries on December 30, 1982. It further increased to US$ 22.3 billion barely five years later following a 200% Fourth General Capital Increase achieved in Cairo, Egypt, in June 1987. The Fifth General Capital Increase concluded in 1998 recorded a 35% capital increase and attributed 60% shareholding to regional countries and 40% to non-regional countries.
For the ADF, from the initial contributions of US$ 101 million in 1974 by its first 13 member state-participants, the Fund has had eleven general replenishments on a 3-yearly basis. The current ADF XI replenishment of UA 5.76 billion or US$ 8.9 billion for the 2008-2010 period, saw a record 52% increase on previous ADF-X figure.
The Nigeria Trust Fund, for its part, started operations with US$ 80 million in 1976 and after one replenishment in 1981, it has been efficiently managed by the Bank to reach UA 233.5 million, equivalent to US$ 0.432 billion. Apart from capital subscriptions by member countries, other sources of Bank Group resources include borrowings from the international financial markets, as well as from incomes generated from loans.
The AfDB has also been instrumental in the establishment and promotion of other African development institutions such as Africa Re-insurance Corporation, Shelter Afrique, Association of African Development Finance Institutions (AADFI), Federation of African Consultants (FECA), the Africa Project Development Facility (APDF), the International Finance Company for Investments in Africa (SIFIDA), African Management Services Company (AMSCO), African Business Round Table (ABR), African Export-Import Bank (AFREXIMBANK), African Capacity Building Foundation, Joint Africa Institute, PTA Bank, the Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa (NESDA).
The Bank has also been the lead agency for NEPAD infrastructure development, a respected guide in the development of banking and financial standards as well as the strategic partner of the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM).
About The African Development Bank Group – Fast Facts
The African Development Bank (ADB)
The African Development Fund (ADF)
The Nigeria Trust Fund (NTF)
53 African countries (regional member countries)
25 non-African countries (non-regional member countries)
Mission To promote sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty in Africa.
Authorized Capital at December 31, 2013 UA 66.98 billion
Subscribed Capital at December 31, 2013 UA 65.21 billion
Paid-up Capital at December 31, 2013 UA 4.96 billion
Callable capital as of December 31, 2013 (ADB) UA 60.25 billion
Total reserves as of December 31, 2013 (ADB) UA 2.86 billion
Approved Operations, 2013 317 operations totalling UA 4.39 billion, financed as follows:
ADB: UA 1.83 billion
ADF: UA 2.27 billion
NTF: UA 31.2 million
Special Funds: UA 253.4 million
Loans: UA 2.86 billion (93 operations)
Grants: UA 697.0 million (114 operations)
HIPC: UA 22.3 million (2 operations)
Equity Participations: UA 99.5 million (10 operations)
Guarantees: UA 431.7 million (6 operations)
Loan Reallocation: UA 17.8 million (1 operation)
Special Funds: UA 253.4 million (91 operations)
Sector Approvals, 2013
Infrastructure: UA 2.05 billion (57.6 percent of total loans and grants)
Social: UA 334.8 million (9.4 percent)
Multisector: UA 449.2 million (12.6 percent )
Finance: UA 288.0 million (8.1 percent)
Agriculture and Rural Development: UA 428.7 million (12.0 percent)
Environment: UA 9.2 million (0.3 percent)
Urban development: UA 0.3 million (0.01 percent)
Total Cumulative Loan and Grant Approvals, 1967–2013 4,003 loans and grants totalling UA 67.22 billion
Mission & Objective
The overarching objective of the African Development Bank (AfDB) Group is to spur sustainable economic development and social progress in its regional member countries (RMCs), thus contributing to poverty reduction.
The Bank Group achieves this objective by:
mobilizing and allocating resources for investment in RMCs; and providing policy advice and technical assistance to support development efforts.
In 2000, all multilateral development institutions have agreed on a same set of objectives, called the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). They are:
Millennium Development Goals
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Improve maternal health
Achieve universal primary education
Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Promote gender equality and empower women
Ensure environmental sustainability
Reduce child mortality
Develop a global partnership for development
Note: All countries in the African Union including Mauritania but excluding the SADR are eligible for NTF benefits. Morocco is also eligible though not a part of the African Union.
4- Southern African Development Community (SADC)
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a Regional Economic Community comprising 15 Member States; Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Established in 1992, SADC is committed to Regional Integration and poverty eradication within Southern Africa through economic development and ensuring peace and security.
The main objectives of Southern African Development Community (SADC) are to achieve economic development, peace and security, and growth, alleviate poverty, enhance the standard and quality of life of the peoples of Southern Africa, and support the socially disadvantaged through Regional Integration. These objectives are to be achieved through increased Regional Integration, built on democratic principles, and equitable and sustainable development.
The objectives of SADC, as stated in Article 5 of the SADC Treaty (1992) are to:
Achieve development and economic growth, alleviate poverty, enhance the standard and quality of life of the people of Southern Africa and support the socially disadvantaged through Regional Integration;
Evolve common political values, systems and institutions;
Promote and defend peace and security;
Promote self-sustaining development on the basis of collective self-reliance, and the inter-dependence of Member States;
Achieve complementarity between national and regional strategies and programmes;
Promote and maximise productive employment and utilisation of resources of the region;
Achieve sustainable utilisation of natural resources and effective protection of the environment;
Strengthen and consolidate the long-standing historical, social and cultural affinities and links among the people of the Region.
SADC Common Agenda
Linked directly to the SADC Objectives is the SADC Common Agenda, originates in Article 5 of the SADC Treaty (1992) as amended. The Common Agenda summarises the key strategies and policies of the institution. Subsequently, the SADC institutional structure is consistent with the SADC Common Agenda and Strategic Priorities that it encapsulates. The same values are echoed in the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP) and Strategic Indicative Plan for the Organ (SIPO).
The SADC Common Agenda is underpinned by a series of principles and policies, including:
Promotion of sustainable and equitable economic growth and socio-economic development that ensures poverty alleviation with the ultimate objective of its eradication;
Promotion of common political values, systems, and other shared values, which are transmitted through institutions that are democratic, legitimate and effective; and
Promotion, consolidation and maintenance of democracy, peace and security.
The Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan is underpinned by the SADC Vision, which charts the direction for the development of the region. The Declaration "Towards the Southern African Development Community", adopted by Heads of State or Government of Southern African States in Windhoek, Namibia, on 17 August 1992, calls upon all countries and people of Southern Africa to develop a vision of a shared future, a future within a regional community.
The SADC Vision is to build a region in which there will be a high degree of harmonisation and rationalisation, to enable the pooling of resources to achieve collective self-reliance in order to improve the living standards of the people of the region.
The vision of SADC is one of a Common Future, a future within a regional community that will ensure economic well-being, improvement of the standards of living and quality of life, freedom and social justice and peace and security for the people of Southern Africa.
5- Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
COMESA's Priorities and Objectives
The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is a free trade area with twenty member states stretching from Libya to Swaziland. The history of COMESA began in December 1994 when it was formed to replace the former Preferential Trade Area (PTA) which had existed from the earlier days of 1981. COMESA (as defined by its Treaty) was established 'as an organisation of free independent sovereign states which have agreed to co-operate in developing their natural and human resources for the good of all their people' and as such it has a wide-ranging series of objectives which necessarily include in its priorities the promotion of peace and security in the region.
However, due to COMESA's economic history and background its main focus is on the formation of a large economic and trading unit that is capable of overcoming some of the barriers that are faced by individual states..
COMESA's current strategy can thus be summed up in the phrase 'economic prosperity through regional integration'. With its 19 member states, population of over 389 million and annual import bill of around US$32 billion with an export bill of US$82 billion COMESA forms a major market place for both internal and external trading. Its area is impressive on the map of the African Continent covering a geographical area of 12 Million (sq km). Its achievements to date have been significant.
A Free Trade Area
The FTA was achieved on 31st October, 2000 when nine of the member States namely Djibouti, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Sudan, Zambia and Zimbabwe eliminated their tariffs on COMESA originating products, in accordance with the tariff reduction schedule adopted in 1992.This followed a trade liberalisation programme that commenced in 1984 on reduction and eventual elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to intra- regional trade. Burundi and Rwanda joined the FTA on 1st January 2004. These eleven FTA members have not only eliminated customs tariffs but are working on the eventual elimination of quantitative restrictions and other non-tariff barriers.
Map of COMESA Member States
A Customs Union maybe defined as a merger of two or more customs territories into a single customs territory, in which customs duties and other measures that restrict trade are eliminated for substantially all trade between the merged territories. The territories, in turn apply the same duties and measures in their trade with third parties. In preparation for a Customs Union the Eleventh Meeting of the Council of Ministers held in Cairo, Egypt adopted a Road Map that outlined programmes and activities whose implementation was necessary before the launching of the Union. It is expected that the launch will be achieved by the year 2008
Other objectives which will be met to assist in the achievement of trade promotion include:
Trade liberalisation and Customs co-operation, including the introduction of a unified computerised Customs network across the region.
Improving the administration of transport and communications to ease the movement of goods services and people between the countries.
Creating an enabling environment and legal framework which will encourage the growth of the private sector, the establishment of a secure investment environment, and the adoption of common sets of standards.
The harmonisation of macro-economic and monetary policies throughout the region.
Several institutions have been created to promote sub-regional co-operation and development. These include:
The COMESA Trade and Development Bank in Nairobi, Kenya
The COMESA Clearing House in Harare, Zimbabwe
The COMESA Association of Commercial Banks in Harare, Zimbabwe
The COMESA Leather Institute in Ethiopia
The COMESA Re-Insurance Company (ZEP-RE) in Nairobi, Kenya
In addition a Court of Justice was also established under the COMESA Treaty and became formally operational in 1998.
Further initiatives exist to promote cross border initiatives, form a common industrial policy and introduce a monetary harmonisation programme.
What COMESA Offers
COMESA offers its members and partners a wide range of benefits which include:
A wider, harmonised and more competitive market
Greater industrial productivity and competitiveness
Increased agricultural production and food security
A more rational exploitation of natural resources
More harmonised monetary, banking and financial policies
More reliable transport and communications infrastructure
Use these web pages or write to us to find out more about all of these.
The Decision making Process
COMESA has evolved a comprehensive decision making structure at the top of which are the Heads of State of the 20 member countries. There is then a Council of Ministers responsible for policy making, 12 technical committees and a series of other advisory bodies (including specific relations with partner countries and the business community. In addition each member state appoints liaison persons in their appropriate ministries who form part of the day-to-day communication process.
Overall co-ordination is achieved through the Secretariat, based in Lusaka, Zambia, who will be happy to deal with all initial communication.
The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), an African Union strategic framework for pan-African socio-economic development, is both a vision and a policy framework for Africa in the twenty-first century. NEPAD is a radically new intervention, spearheaded by African leaders, to address critical challenges facing the continent: poverty, development and Africa's marginalisation internationally.
NEPAD provides unique opportunities for African countries to take full control of their development agenda, to work more closely together, and to cooperate more effectively with international partners.
NEPAD manages a number of programmes and projects in six theme areas. These themes are:
- Agriculture and Food Security.
- Climate Change and Natural Resource Management.
- Regional Integration and Infrastructure.
- Human Development.
- Economic and Corporate Governance.
- Cross-cutting Issues, including Gender, Capacity Development and ICT.
Historical context: Origins and influences
By the 1970s and 1980s, many African countries were liberated, but these were also decades that were characterised by political instability, military coups, one-party governments, dictatorships and the heightened influence of Cold War politics in African affairs. Faced with the onset of an economic crisis – huge foreign debts and declines in social development – and the failure of the international financial institutions' free market policies, African countries tried to reverse these trends by calling for a new international economic order (NIEO) through which they could craft self-reliant, culturally relevant and state-influenced development strategies.
In such a context, African leaders found it necessary to transform the focus of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) from political liberation to economic development. Hence, throughout the 1980s and 1990s African governments went on to design a series of pan-African development approaches which they felt were relevant to the needs of their people. These initiatives included: the Lagos Plan of Action (1980), the Final Act of Lagos (1980), Africa's Priority Programme for Economic Recovery (1986-1990), the African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programme (1989), the African (Arusha) Charter for Popular Participation and Development (1990), the Abuja Treaty (1991) and the Cairo Agenda (1994) amongst others.
Faced with the failures of these plans, the ills of the structural adjustment programmes of modernisation and falling growth rates when other regions such as Asia were on the rise, 'a new breed of African leaders' entered the 21st century with proclamations of a re-birth for Africa.
It is in this regard that the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is the result of three parallel initiatives. The first is the Millennium Africa Recovery Plan (MAP), led by South African President Thabo Mbeki and unveiled at the World Economic Forum in Davos in January 2001. The second initiative is the Omega Plan, crafted by the President of Senegal, Abdoulaye Wade, and presented to the Summit of Francophone African leaders in Cameroon in January 2001. MAP and the Omega Plan were then combined to give birth to a third initiative the New African Initiative (NAI) that then led to NEPAD in 2001.
All three initiatives shared a common interest in increasing the pace and impact of Africa's development. While these initiatives share common characteristics, there were also differences reflecting the regional and other priorities of the enactors. Compromises had to be made in order to merge the three proposals into one initiative. NEPAD thus reflects the compromises involved in arriving at a single initiative.
Founding member countries of NEPAD included South Africa, Nigeria, Algeria, Egypt and Senegal.
NEPAD was adopted by African Heads of State and Government of the OAU in 2001 and was ratified by the African Union (AU) in 2002 to address Africa's development problems within a new paradigm. NEPAD's main objectives are to reduce poverty, put Africa on a sustainable development path, halt the marginalization of Africa, and empower women.
The mechanism for Africa's development – today and tomorrow
Since its initiation, NEPAD has been promoted widely both within Africa and in the industrialised North. NEPAD is now recognised as Africa's development plan by all the governments of the North, and the international financial institutions, and by many international governance institutions like the United Nations. NEPAD is widely seen as the mechanism through which support to Africa's development efforts can be best delivered. Thus, the NEPAD process has come to be accepted not only by African countries and RECs but also by Africa's development partners as the framework mechanism for their development efforts.
The 37th OAU Summit in Lusaka, Zambia in July 2001 adopted the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), as the integrated and comprehensive socio-economic development programme to accelerate Africa's renewal, in the form of Declaration 1 (XXXVII).
The Lusaka Summit also agreed on the creation of the Heads of State and Government Implementiation Committee (HSGIC), which in turn established the NEPAD Steering Committee and the NEPAD Secretariat to coordinate and administer its activities. NEPAD had as its overarching objectives the eradication of poverty, the promotion of sustainable development and the arrest of the marginalisation of Africa under globalisation. In particular, the goal to eradicate poverty in Africa was focused on meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
In line with the integration of NEPAD into the structures and processes of the AU, the 14th AU Summit held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in February 2010, strengthened the NEPAD programme by transforming the NEPAD secretariat into an implementation Agency - the NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency (NEPAD Agency).
It is also in this regard that the NEPAD Heads of State and Government Implementation Committee (HSGIC) was transformed into the NEPAD Heads of State and Government Orientation Committee (HSGOC). In addition, the Summit authorised the Chairperson of the African Union Commission to exercise supervisory authority over the NEPAD Agency.
The NEPAD leadership and governing structures
The NEPAD governance structures are:
- The Assembly of the African Union (AU)
- The NEPAD Heads of State & Government Orientation Committee (HSGOC)
- The NEPAD Steering Committee (SC)
Relationship between AU Assembly and HSGOC
The Chairperson of the HSGOC reports to the AU Assembly on the activities of the HSGOC and makes recommendations for consideration and adoption. In this regard, the NEPAD Agency provides the chairperson with technical support on drafting the Chair's summary report to the Assembly and prepares the draft decision(s) to be tabled in the Assembly for resolution. The other NEPAD related reports are provided to the Heads of State and Government in order to widen understanding, engagement and ownership of NEPAD by all the Heads of State and Government in the Assembly.
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