flag of Libya




The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks from the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of 'direct democracy.' QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics - but was forced to retreat in 1987. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Libyan support for terrorism appeared to have decreased after the imposition of sanctions. During the 1990s, QADHAFI also began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya resolved the Lockerbie case. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction, and QADHAFI has made significant strides in normalizing relations with western nations since then. He has received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe in 15 years when he traveled to Brussels in April 2004. QADHAFI also resolved in 2004 some of the outstanding cases against his government for terrorist activities in the 1980s by compensating some families of victims of the Pan Am 103, French airliner UTA, and La Belle disco bombings. The US resumed full diplomatic relations with Libya in May 2006 and rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June.

Official name:

Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya


name: Tripoli
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Government type:

Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in practice, an authoritarian state


note: includes 166,510 non-nationals (July 2007 est.)


Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities

Official Currency:

Libyan Dinar (LYD)

Currency code:



total: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km


Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior






Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates:

25 00 N, 17 00 E

Map references:



total: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries:

total: 4,348 km
border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km


1,770 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm


Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior


mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, gypsum

Land use:

arable land: 1.03%
permanent crops: 0.19%
other: 98.78% (2005)

Irrigated land:

4,700 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:

hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues:

desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:

more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert



TRIPOLI INTL ARPT 32 66 N, 13 15 E, 265 feet (81 meters) above sea level.

  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg. Temperature
12 12 15 18 24 27 28 29 27 22 17 13
Avg. Max Temperature
18 18 22 25 31 34 35 36 34 29 23 19
Avg. Min Temperature
7 7 9 12 16 19 21 22 21 17 12 8
Avg. Rain Days
5 4 3 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 3
Avg. Snow Days
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

BENINA 32 8 N, 20 26 E, 433 feet (132 meters) above sea level.

  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg. Temperature
12 13 14 18 23 25 26 27 26 22 18 14
Avg. Max Temperature
16 17 19 23 28 31 30 31 31 26 22 18
Avg. Min Temperature
9 9 10 13 17 20 21 22 22 18 14 11
Avg. Rain Days
6 4 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 3 4 5
Avg. Snow Days
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TOBRUK 32 10 N, 23 91 E, 164 feet (50 meters) above sea level.

  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg. Temperature
14 14 15 18 21 24 26 26 26 22 19 15
Avg. Max Temperature
17 18 20 22 25 27 29 29 29 26 23 19
Avg. Min Temperature
10 10 11 13 17 20 22 23 22 18 14 10
Avg. Rain Days
1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Avg. Snow Days
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

SEBHA 27 1 N, 14 43 E, 1417 feet (432 meters) above sea level.

  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg. Temperature
13 14 19 24 29 32 32 33 32 25 18 13
Avg. Max Temperature
19 20 26 32 36 39 39 39 39 32 25 20
Avg. Min Temperature
6 7 12 17 22 24 24 25 25 18 12 7
Avg. Rain Days
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Avg. Snow Days
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

GHADAMES 30 13 N, 9 50 E, 1171 feet (357 meters) above sea level.

  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg. Temperature
11 13 18 22 29 32 34 34 31 24 17 12
Avg. Max Temperature
18 20 25 29 36 39 41 40 38 30 24 19
Avg. Min Temperature
5 7 11 15 21 24 25 26 24 17 11 6
Avg. Rain Days
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Avg. Snow Days
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


Libya has a small population in a large land area. Population density is about 50 persons per sq. km. (80/sq. mi.) in the two northern regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, but falls to less than one person per sq. km. (1.6/sq. mi.) elsewhere. Ninety percent of the people live in less than 10% of the area, primarily along the coast. More than half the population is urban, mostly concentrated in the two largest cities, Tripoli and Benghazi. Fifty percent of the population is estimated to be under age 15.

Native Libyans are primarily a mixture of Arabs and Berbers. Small Tebou and Touareg tribal groups in southern Libya are nomadic or semi-nomadic. Among foreign residents, the largest groups are citizens of other African nations, including North Africans (primarily Egyptians and Tunisians), West Africans and Sub-Saharan Africans.




note: includes 166,510 non-nationals (July 2007 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 33.4% (male 1,029,096/female 985,606)
15-64 years: 62.4% (male 1,940,287/female 1,827,429)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 124,892/female 129,604) (2007 est.)

Population growth rate:

2.262% (2007 est.)

Birth rate:

26.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate:

3.47 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.044 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.062 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.964 male(s)/female
total population: 1.052 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 22.82 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 25.07 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 76.88 years
male: 74.64 years
female: 79.23 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate:

3.21 children born/woman (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

10,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:


Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: may be a significant risk in some locations during the transmission season (typically April through October) (2007)


noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan

Ethnic groups:

Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)


Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%


Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.6%
male: 92.4%
female: 72% (2003 est.)



For most of their history, the peoples of Libya have been subjected to varying degrees of foreign control. The Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, Romans, Vandals, and Byzantines ruled all or parts of Libya. Although the Greeks and Romans left impressive ruins at Cyrene, Leptis Magna, and Sabratha, little else remains today to testify to the presence of these ancient cultures.

The Arabs conquered Libya in the seventh century A.D. In the following centuries, most of the indigenous peoples adopted Islam and the Arabic language and culture. The Ottoman Turks conquered the country in the mid-16th century. Libya remained part of their empire--although at times virtually autonomous--until Italy invaded in 1911 and, in the face of years of resistance, made Libya a colony.

In 1934, Italy adopted the name 'Libya' (used by the Greeks for all of North Africa, except Egypt) as the official name of the colony, which consisted of the Provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, and Fezzan. King Idris I, Emir of Cyrenaica, led Libyan resistance to Italian occupation between the two World Wars. From 1943 to 1951, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were under British administration, while the French controlled Fezzan. In 1944, Idris returned from exile in Cairo but declined to resume permanent residence in Cyrenaica until the removal in 1947 of some aspects of foreign control. Under the terms of the 1947 peace treaty with the Allies, Italy relinquished all claims to Libya.

On November 21, 1949, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution stating that Libya should become independent before January 1, 1952. King Idris I represented Libya in the subsequent UN negotiations. When Libya declared its independence on December 24, 1951, it was the first country to achieve independence through the United Nations and one of the first former European possessions in Africa to gain independence. Libya was proclaimed a constitutional and a hereditary monarchy under King Idris.

The discovery of significant oil reserves in 1959 and the subsequent income from petroleum sales enabled what had been one of the world's poorest countries to become extremely wealthy, as measured by per capita GDP. Although oil drastically improved Libya?s finances, popular resentment grew as wealth was increasingly concentrated in the hands of the elite. This discontent continued to mount with the rise throughout the Arab world of Nasserism and the idea of Arab unity.

On September 1, 1969, a small group of military officers led by then 28-year-old army officer Mu?ammar Abu Minyar al-Qadhafi staged a coup d?etat against King Idris, who was exiled to Egypt. The new regime, headed by the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), abolished the monarchy and proclaimed the new Libyan Arab Republic. Qadhafi emerged as leader of the RCC and eventually as de facto chief of state, a political role he still plays. The Libyan government asserts that Qadhafi currently holds no official position, although he is referred to in government statements and the official press as the 'Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution.'

The new RCC's motto became 'freedom, socialism, and unity.' It pledged itself to remedy 'backwardness', take an active role in the Palestinian Arab cause, promote Arab unity, and encourage domestic policies based on social justice, non-exploitation, and an equitable distribution of wealth.

An early objective of the new government was withdrawal of all foreign military installations from Libya. Following negotiations, British military installations at Tobruk and nearby El Adem were closed in March 1970, and U.S. facilities at Wheelus Air Force Base near Tripoli were closed in June 1970. That July, the Libyan Government ordered the expulsion of several thousand Italian residents. By 1971, libraries and cultural centers operated by foreign governments were ordered closed.

In the 1970s, Libya claimed leadership of Arab and African revolutionary forces and sought active roles in international organizations. Late in the 1970s, Libyan embassies were redesignated as 'people's bureaus,' as Qadhafi sought to portray Libyan foreign policy as an expression of the popular will. The people's bureaus, aided by Libyan religious, political, educational, and business institutions overseas, exported Qadhafi's revolutionary philosophy abroad.

Qadhafi?s confrontational foreign policies and use of terrorism, as well as Libya?s growing friendship with the U.S.S.R., led to increased tensions with the West in the 1980s. Following a terrorist bombing at a discotheque in West Berlin frequented by American military personnel, in 1986 the U.S. retaliated militarily against targets in Libya, and imposed broad unilateral economic sanctions.

After Libya was implicated in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, UN sanctions were imposed in 1992. UN Security Council resolutions (UNSCRs) passed in 1992 and 1993 obliged Libya to fulfill requirements related to the Pan Am 103 bombing before sanctions could be lifted. Qadhafi initially refused to comply with these requirements, leading to Libya?s political and economic isolation for most of the 1990s.

In 1999, Libya fulfilled one of the UNSCR requirements by surrendering two Libyans suspected in connection with the bombing for trial before a Scottish court in the Netherlands. One of these suspects, Abdel Basset al-Megrahi, was found guilty; the other was acquitted. Al-Megrahi?s conviction was upheld on appeal in 2002. In August 2003, Libya fulfilled the remaining UNSCR requirements, including acceptance of responsibility for the actions of its officials and payment of appropriate compensation to the victims? families. UN sanctions were lifted on September 12, 2003. U.S. International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA)-based sanctions were lifted September 20, 2004.

On December 19, 2003, Libya publicly announced its intention to rid itself of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)-class missile programs. Since that time, it has cooperated with the U.S., the U.K., the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons toward these objectives. Libya has also signed the IAEA Additional Protocol and has become a State Party to the Chemical Weapons Convention.




Libya?s political system is in theory based on the political philosophy in Qadhafi?s Green Book, which combines socialist and Islamic theories and rejects parliamentary democracy and political parties. In reality, Qadhafi exercises near total control over major government decisions. For the first seven years following the revolution, Colonel Qadhafi and 12 fellow army officers, the Revolutionary Command Council, began a complete overhaul of Libya?s political system, society and economy. In 1973, he announced the start of a 'cultural revolution' in schools, businesses, industries, and public institutions to oversee administration of those organizations in the public interest. On March 2, 1977, Qadhafi convened a General People's Congress (GPC) to proclaim the establishment of 'people's power,' change the country's name to the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, and to vest, theoretically, primary authority in the GPC.

The GPC is the legislative forum that interacts with the General People's Committee, whose members are secretaries of Libyan ministries. It serves as the intermediary between the masses and the leadership and is composed of the secretariats of some 600 local 'basic popular congresses.' The GPC secretariat and the cabinet secretaries are appointed by the GPC secretary general and confirmed by the annual GPC congress. These cabinet secretaries are responsible for the routine operation of their ministries, but Qadhafi exercises real authority directly or through manipulation of the peoples and revolutionary committees.

Qadhafi remained the de facto chief of state and secretary general of the GPC until 1980, when he gave up his office. Although he holds no formal office, Qadhafi exercises power with the assistance of a small group of trusted advisers, who include relatives from his home base in the Sirte region, which lies between the traditional commercial and political power centers in Benghazi and Tripoli.

In the 1980s, competition grew between the official Libyan Government and military hierarchies and the revolutionary committees. An abortive coup attempt in May 1984, apparently mounted by Libyan exiles with internal support, led to a short-lived reign of terror in which thousands were imprisoned and interrogated. An unknown number were executed. Qadhafi used the revolutionary committees to search out alleged internal opponents following the coup attempt, thereby accelerating the rise of more radical elements inside the Libyan power hierarchy.

In 1988, faced with rising public dissatisfaction with shortages in consumer goods and setbacks in Libya's war with Chad, Qadhafi began to curb the power of the revolutionary committees and to institute some domestic reforms. The regime released many political prisoners and eased restrictions on foreign travel by Libyans. Private businesses were again permitted to operate.

In the late 1980s, Qadhafi began to pursue an anti-Islamic fundamentalist policy domestically, viewing fundamentalism as a potential rallying point for opponents of the regime. Qadhafi's security forces launched a pre-emptive strike at alleged coup plotters in the military and among the Warfallah tribe in October 1993. Widespread arrests and government reshufflings followed, accompanied by public 'confessions' from regime opponents and allegations of torture and executions. The military, once Qadhafi?s strongest supporters, became a potential threat in the 1990s. In 1993, following a failed coup attempt that implicated senior military officers, Qadhafi began to purge the military periodically, eliminating potential rivals and inserting his own loyal followers in their place.

The Libyan court system consists of three levels: the courts of first instance; the courts of appeals; and the Supreme Court, which is the final appellate level. The GPC appoints justices to the Supreme Court. Special 'revolutionary courts' and military courts operate outside the court system to try political offenses and crimes against the state. 'People?s courts,' another example of extrajudicial authority, were abolished in January 2005. Libya?s justice system is nominally based on Sharia law.

Principal Government Officials
De facto Head of State--Mu'ammar Abu Minyar al-Qadhafi ('the Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution')
Secretary General of the General People?s Committee (Prime Minister)--Dr. Al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmudi
Secretary of the General People?s Committee for Foreign Liaison and International Cooperation (Foreign Minister)--Abd al-Rahman Shalgham


Country name:

conventional long form: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma
local short form: none

Government type:

Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in practice, an authoritarian state


name: Tripoli
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions


24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)

National holiday:

Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)


none; note - following the September 1969 military overthrow of the Libyan government, the Revolutionary Command Council replaced the existing constitution with the Constitutional Proclamation in December 1969; in March 1977, Libya adopted the Declaration of the Establishment of the People's Authority

Legal system:

based on Italian and French civil law systems and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:

chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state
head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister) al-Baghdadi Ali al-MAHMUDI (since 5 March 2006)
cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress
elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held March 2006 (next to be held NA)
election results: NA

Legislative branch:

unicameral General People's Congress (approximately 2,700 seats; members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees)

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:


Political pressure groups and leaders:

various Arab nationalist movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements; an anti-QADHAFI Libyan exile movement exists, primarily based in London, but has little influence

International organization participation:


Flag description:

plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)



The government dominates Libya?s socialist-oriented economy through complete control of the country?s oil resources, which account for approximately 97% of export earnings, 75% of government receipts, and 54% of the gross domestic product. Oil revenues constitute the principal source of foreign exchange. Much of the country?s income has been lost to waste, corruption, conventional armaments purchases, and attempts to develop weapons of mass destruction, as well as to large donations made to developing countries in attempts to increase Qadhafi?s influence in Africa and elsewhere. Although oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, the government?s mismanagement of the economy has led to high inflation and increased import prices. These factors resulted in a decline in the standard of living from the late 1990s through 2003.

Despite efforts to diversify the economy and encourage private sector participation, extensive controls of prices, credit, trade, and foreign exchange constrain growth. Import restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have caused periodic shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs.

Although agriculture is the second-largest sector in the economy, Libya imports most foods. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit output, while higher incomes and a growing population have caused food consumption to rise. Domestic food production meets about 25% of demand.

On September 20, 2004, President George W. Bush signed an Executive Order ending economic sanctions imposed under the authority of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA). U.S. persons are no longer prohibited from working in Libya, and many American companies are actively seeking investment opportunities in Libya. The government has announced ambitious plans to increase foreign investment in the oil and gas sectors to significantly boost production capacity. The government is also pursuing a number of infrastructure projects such as highways, railways, telecommunications backbones, and irrigation.


Economy - overview:

The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, about one-quarter of GDP, and 60% of public sector wages. Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libyan officials in the past four years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. Almost all US unilateral sanctions against Libya were removed in April 2004, helping Libya attract more foreign direct investment, mostly in the energy sector. Libyan oil and gas licensing rounds continue to draw high international interest; the National Oil Company set a goal of nearly doubling oil production to 3 billion bbl/day by 2010. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for more than 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food. Libya's primary agricultural water source remains the Great Manmade River Project, but significant resources are being invested in desalinization research to meet growing water demands.

GDP - real growth rate:

6.1% (2006 est.)

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$72.68 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):

$34.2 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$12,300 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 7.3%
industry: 51.3%
services: 41.4% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:

7.4% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

3.1% (2006 est.)

Labor force:

1.787 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:

30% (2004 est.)


revenues: $33.34 billion
expenditures: $19.3 billion; including capital expenditures of $5.6 billion (2006 est.)


petroleum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate:


Electricity - production:

19.44 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - consumption:

18.08 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:

1.72 million bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil - consumption:

237,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:

1.326 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil - imports:

1,233 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - proved reserves:

42 billion bbl (2006 est.)

Natural gas - production:

8.06 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:

2.13 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:

wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle


$37.02 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:

crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals

Exports - partners:

Italy 37.4%, Germany 14.8%, Spain 7.8%, US 6.2%, France 5.6%, Turkey 5.4% (2006)


$14.47 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products

Imports - partners:

Italy 18.8%, Germany 7.8%, China 7.5%, Tunisia 6.2%, France 5.8%, Turkey 5.2%, South Korea 4.8%, US 4.6%, UK 4% (2006)

Debt - external:

$4.492 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:

ODA, $18 million (2004 est.)


Libyan Dinar (LYD)

Currency code:


Exchange rates:

Libyan dinars per US dollar - 1.3108 (2006), 1.3084 (2005), 1.305 (2004), 1.2929 (2003), 1.2707 (2002)

Fiscal year:

calendar year





Military branches:

Armed Peoples on Duty (APOD, Army), Libyan Arab Navy, Libyan Arab Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriya al-Arabia al-Libyya, LAAF) (2007)

Military service age and obligation:

17 years of age (2004)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 17-49: 1,505,675
females age 17-49: 1,429,152 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 17-49: 1,291,624
females age 17-49: 1,230,824 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:

males age 18-49: 62,034
females age 17-49: 59,533 (2005 est.)


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